Gross Anatomy

Card Set Information

Author:
kstowe1
ID:
88218
Filename:
Gross Anatomy
Updated:
2011-05-31 17:01:41
Tags:
muscles
Folders:

Description:
muscles - exam 1
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user kstowe1 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Trapezius
    • Origin: superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7 to T12
    • Insertion: lateral one-third of clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula
    • Innervation: motor – accessory nerve (XI); proprioception C3 & C4
    • Function: assists in rotating the scapula during abduction of humerus above horizontal; upper fibers elevate, middle fibers adduct, and lower
    • fibers depress scapula
    • Blood supply: transverse cervical artery (superficial branch); muscular perforating branch of the dorsal scapular artery
  2. Latissimus dorsi
    • Origin: spinous processes of T7 to L5 and sacrum, iliac crest, ribs10-12
    • Insertion: floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
    • Innervation: thoracodorsal nerve (C6 to C8)
    • Function: extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus
    • Blood supply: thorscodorsal artery
  3. Levator scapulae
    • Origin: transverse processes of C1 to C4
    • Insertion: upper portion medial border of scapula
    • Innervation: C3 and C4 and dorsal scapular nerve (C4, C5)
    • Function: elevates scapula
    • Blood supply: superficial branch of transverse cervical artery;deep branch transverse cervical artery
  4. Rhomboid major
    • Origin: spinous processes of T3 to T5
    • Insertion: medial borer of scapula between spine and inferior angle
    • Innervation: dorsal scapular nerve (C4 &C5)
    • Function: retracts and elevates scapula
    • Blood supply: deep branch transverse cervical artery
  5. Rhomboid minor
    • Origin: lower portion of ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7to T1
    • Insertion: medial border of scapula at the spine of scapula
    • Innervation: dorsal scapular nerve (C4 & C5)
    • Function: retracts and elevates scapula
    • Blood supply: deep branch transverse cervical artery
  6. Serratus posterior superior
    • Origin: lower portion of ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7to T3 and supraspinous ligaments
    • Insertion: upper border of ribs 2 to 5 just lateral to their angles
    • Innervation: anterior rami of upper thoracic nerves (T2 to T5)
    • Function: elevates ribs 2 to 5
    • Blood supply: intercostal arteries
  7. Serratus posterior inferior
    • Origin: spinous processes of T11 to L3 and supraspinous ligaments
    • Insertion: lower border of ribs 9 to 12 just lateral to their angles
    • Innervation: anterior rami of lower thoracic nerves (T9 to T12)
    • Function: depresses ribs 9 to 12 and may prevent lower ribs formbeing elevated when the diaphragm contracts
    • Blood supply: intercostal arteries
  8. Splenius capitis
    • Origin: lower half of ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7 toT4
    • Insertion: mastoid process, skull below lateral one-third ofsuperior nuchal line
    • Innervation: posterior rami middle cervical nerves
    • Function: together – draw head backward, extending neck;individually – draw and rotate head to one side (turn face to same side)
  9. Splenius cervicis
    • Origin: spinous processes of T3 to T6
    • Insertion: transverse processes of C1 to C3
    • Innervation: posterior rami lower cervical nerves
    • Function: together – extend neck; individually – draw and rotatehead to one side(turn face to same side)
  10. Iliocostalis lumborum
    • Origin: sacrum, spinous processes of lumbar and lower two thoracic vertebrae and their supraspinous ligaments, and the iliac crest
    • Insertion: angles of the lower 6 or 7 ribs
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: primary extensor of the vertebral column and head; actingbilaterally, they straighten the back, returning it to the upright positionform a flexed position, and pull the head posteriorly. They also participate incontrolling vertebral column flexion by contracting and relaxing in acoordinated fashion. Acting unilaterally, they bend the vertebral column laterally.In addition, unilateral contractions of muscles attached to the head turn tothe actively contracting side
  11. Iliocostalis thoracis
    • Origin: angles of the lower 6 ribs
    • Insertion: angles of the upper 6 ribs and the transverse process of C7
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: primary extensor of the vertebral column and head; actingbilaterally, they straighten the back, returning it to the upright positionform a flexed position, and pull the head posteriorly. They also participate incontrolling vertebral column flexion by contracting and relaxing in acoordinated fashion. Acting unilaterally, they bend the vertebral columnlaterally. In addition, unilateral contractions of muscles attached to the headturn to the actively contracting side
  12. Iliocostalis cervicis
    • Origin: angles of ribs 3 to 6
    • Insertion: transverse processes of C4 to C6
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: primary extensor of the vertebral column and head; actingbilaterally, they straighten the back, returning it to the upright positionform a flexed position, and pull the head posteriorly. They also participate incontrolling vertebral column flexion by contracting and relaxing in acoordinated fashion. Acting unilaterally, they bend the vertebral columnlaterally. In addition, unilateral contractions of muscles attached to the headturn to the actively contracting side
  13. Longissimus thoracis
    • Origin: blends with ilocostalis lumbar region and is attached totransverse processes of lumbar vertebrae
    • Insertion: transverse processes of all thoracic vertebrae and just lateral to the tubercles of the lower 9 to 10 ribs
    • Innervation: dorsal ramiFunction: primary extensor of the vertebral column and head; acting bilaterally, they straighten the back, returning it to the upright positionform a flexed position, and pull the head posteriorly. They also participate incontrolling vertebral column flexion by contracting and relaxing in acoordinated fashion. Acting unilaterally, they bend the vertebral columnlaterally. In addition, unilateral contractions of muscles attached to the headturn to the actively contracting side
  14. Longissimus cervicis
    • Origin: transverse processes of upper 4 to 5 thoracic vertebrae
    • Insertion: transverse processes of C2 to C6
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: primary extensor of the vertebral column and head; actingbilaterally, they straighten the back, returning it to the upright positionform a flexed position, and pull the head posteriorly. They also participate incontrolling vertebral column flexion by contracting and relaxing in acoordinated fashion. Acting unilaterally, they bend the vertebral columnlaterally. In addition, unilateral contractions of muscles attached to the headturn to the actively contracting side
  15. Longissimus capitis
    • Origin: transverse processes of upper 4 or 5 thoracic vertebrae andarticular processes of lower 3 or 4 cervical vertebrae
    • Insertion: posterior margin of the mastoid process
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: primary extensor of the vertebral column and head; actingbilaterally, they straighten the back, returning it to the upright positionform a flexed position, and pull the head posteriorly. They also participate incontrolling vertebral column flexion by contracting and relaxing in acoordinated fashion. Acting unilaterally, they bend the vertebral columnlaterally. In addition, unilateral contractions of muscles attached to the headturn to the actively contracting side
  16. Spinalis thoracis
    • Origin: spinous processes of T10 or T11 to L2
    • Insertion: spinous processes of T1 to T8 (varies)
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: primary extensor of the vertebral column and head; actingbilaterally, they straighten the back, returning it to the upright positionform a flexed position, and pull the head posteriorly. They also participate incontrolling vertebral column flexion by contracting and relaxing in acoordinated fashion. Acting unilaterally, they bend the vertebral columnlaterally. In addition, unilateral contractions of muscles attached to the headturn to the actively contracting side
  17. Spinalis cervicis
    • Origin: lower part of ligamentum nuchae and spinous process of C7(sometimes T1 to T2)
    • Insertion: spinous process of C2 (axis)
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: primary extensor of the vertebral column and head; actingbilaterally, they straighten the back, returning it to the upright positionform a flexed position, and pull the head posteriorly. They also participate incontrolling vertebral column flexion by contracting and relaxing in acoordinated fashion. Acting unilaterally, they bend the vertebral columnlaterally. In addition, unilateral contractions of muscles attached to the headturn to the actively contracting side
  18. Spinalis capitis
    • Origin: usually blends with semispinalis capitis
    • Insertion: with semispinalis capitis
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: primary extensor of the vertebral column and head; actingbilaterally, they straighten the back, returning it to the upright positionform a flexed position, and pull the head posteriorly. They also participate incontrolling vertebral column flexion by contracting and relaxing in acoordinated fashion. Acting unilaterally, they bend the vertebral columnlaterally. In addition, unilateral contractions of muscles attached to the headturn to the actively contracting side
  19. Semispinalis thoracis
    • Origin: transverse processes of T6 to T10
    • Insertion: spinous processes of upper thoracic and lower 2 cervical vertebrae
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: when muscles in the transversospinales group contractbilaterally, they extend the vertebral column, an action similar to that of theerector spinae group. However, when muscles on only one side contract, theypull the spinous processes toward the transverse processes on that side,causing the trunk to turn or rotate in the opposite direction
  20. Semispinalis cervicis
    • Origin: transverse processes of upper 5 or 6 thoracic vertebrae
    • Insertion: spinous processes of C2 (axis) to C5
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: when muscles in the transversospinales group contractbilaterally, they extend the vertebral column, an action similar to that of theerector spinae group. However, when muscles on only one side contract, theypull the spinous processes toward the transverse processes on that side,causing the trunk to turn or rotate in the opposite direction
  21. Semispinalis capitis
    • Origin: transverse of T1 to T6 (or T7) and C7 and articular processes of C4 to C6
    • Insertion: medial are between superior and inferior nuchal lines ofoccipital bone
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: when muscles in the transversospinales group contractbilaterally, they extend the vertebral column, an action similar to that of theerector spinae group. However, when muscles on only one side contract, theypull the spinous processes toward the transverse processes on that side, causingthe trunk to turn or rotate in the opposite direction
  22. Multifidus
    • Origin: sacrum, origin of erector spinae, posterior superior lineiliac spine, mammillary processes of lumbar vertebrae, transverse processes ofthoracic vertebrae, and articular processes of lower 4 cervical vertebrae
    • Insertion: base of spinous processes of all vertebrae from L5 to C2(axis)
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: when muscles in the transversospinales group contractbilaterally, they extend the vertebral column, an action similar to that of theerector spinae group. However, when muscles on only one side contract, theypull the spinous processes toward the transverse processes on that side,causing the trunk to turn or rotate in the opposite direction
  23. Rotatores lumborum
    • Origin: mammillary processes of lumbar vertebrae
    • Insertion: spinous processes of lumbar vertebrae
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: when muscles in the transversospinales group contractbilaterally, they extend the vertebral column, an action similar to that of theerector spinae group. However, when muscles on only one side contract, theypull the spinous processes toward the transverse processes on that side,causing the trunk to turn or rotate in the opposite direction
  24. Rotatores thoracis
    • Origin: transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae
    • Insertion: spinous processes of thoracic vertebrae
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: when muscles in the transversospinales group contractbilaterally, they extend the vertebral column, an action similar to that of theerector spinae group. However, when muscles on only one side contract, theypull the spinous processes toward the transverse processes on that side,causing the trunk to turn or rotate in the opposite direction
  25. Rotatores cervicis
    • Origin: articular processes of cervical vertebrae
    • Insertion: spinous processes of cervical vertebrae
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: when muscles in the transversospinales group contractbilaterally, they extend the vertebral column, an action similar to that of theerector spinae group. However, when muscles on only one side contract, theypull the spinous processes toward the transverse processes on that side,causing the trunk to turn or rotate in the opposite direction
  26. Levatores costarum
    • Origin: short paired muscles arising form transverse processes of C7 to T11
    • Insertion: the ribs below vertebra of origin near tubercle
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: contraction elevates rib
  27. Interspinales
    • Origin: short paired muscles attached to the spinous processes ofcontiguous vertebrae, one on each side of the interspinous ligament
    • Insertion: the ribs below vertebra of origin near tubercle
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: postural muscles that stabilize adjoining vertebraeduring movements of vertebral column
  28. Intertransversarii
    • Origin: small muscles between the transverse processes of contiguous
    • Insertion: postural muscles that stabilize adjoining vertebra during movements of vertebral column
    • Innervation: dorsal rami
    • Function: postural muscles that stabilize adjoining vertebrae during movements of vertebral column
  29. Rectus capitis posterior major
    • Origin: spinous process of axis (C2)
    • Insertion: lateral portion of occipital bone below inferior nuchal line
    • Innervation: posterior ramus of C1
    • Function: extension of head; rotation of face to same side as muscle
    • Blood supply: ventebral artery
  30. Rectus capitis posterior minor
    • Origin: posterior tubercle of atlas (C1)
    • Insertion: medial portion of occipital bone below inferior nuchalline
    • Innervation: posterior ramus of C1
    • Function: extension of head
    • Blood supply: ventebral artery
  31. Obliquus capitis superior
    • Origin: transverse process of atlas (C1)
    • Insertion: occipital bone between superior and inferior nuchallines
    • Innervation: posterior ramus of C1
    • Function: extension of head and bends it to same side
    • Blood supply: ventebral artery
  32. Obliquus capitis inferior
    • Origin: spinous process of axis (C2)
    • Insertion: transverse process of atlas (C1)
    • Innervation: posterior ramus of C1
    • Function: rotation of face to same side
    • Blood supply: ventebral artery
  33. Deep muscles of back – blood supply
    • [cranial/superior to caudal/inferior]
    • vertebral artery
    • deep cervical artery
    • occipital artery
    • transverse cervical artery
    • posterior intercostal artery
    • subcostal artery
    • lumbar artery
    • lateral sacral artery
  34. Pectoralis major
    • Origin: medial half of clavicle and anterior surface of sternum, first seven costal cartilages, aponeurosis of external oblique
    • Insertion: lateral lip of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
    • Innervation: medial and lateral pectoral nerves
    • Function: adduction, medial rotation, and flexion of the humerus at the shoulder joint
  35. subclavius
    • Origin: rib 1 at junction between rib and costal cartilage
    • Insertion: groove on inferior surface of middle third of clavicle
    • Innervation: nerve to subclavius
    • Function: pulls clavicle medially to stabilize sternoclavicular joint
  36. pectoralis minor
    • Origin: anterior surfaces of the third, fourth, and fifth ribs, and deep fascia overlying the related intercostal spaces
    • Insertion: coracoid process of scapula
    • Innervation: medial pectoral nerves
    • Function: depresses top of shoulder; protracts scapula
  37. thoracic dermatomes
    • C4 - supraclavicular nerves
    • T4- nipple
    • T6 - xiphoid process
    • T8 - costal margin
    • T10 - belly button
    • just below T12 - inguinal ligament
  38. Blood supply of the breast
    • Laterally – axillary artery – superior thoracic a., thoraco-acrominal a., lateral thoracic a., subscapular a.
    • Medially – internal thoracic artery – intercostal arteries (2nd-4th), perforating branches
  39. Nerves of the breast
    • Intercostal nerves (2nd–6th) (subclavicular nerves)
    • anterior (medial) cutaneous branches
    • lateral cutaneous branches
  40. Lymphatic drainage of the breast
    • 75% - axillary nodes – subclavian trunk
    • 25% - parasternal nodes – bronchomediastinal trunk
    • intercostal nodes – thoracic duct/ bronchomediastinal trunk
  41. external intercostal
    • Origin: inferior margin of rib above

    • Insertion: superior margin of rib below
    • Innervation: intercostal nerves; T1-T11
    • Function: most active during inspiration; supports intercostal space; moves ribs superiorly
  42. internal intercostal
    • Origin: lateral edge of costal groove of rib above
    • Insertion: superior margin of rib below deep to the attachment of the related external intercostal
    • Innervation: intercostal nerves; T1-T11
    • Function: most active during expiration; supports intercostal space; moves ribs inferiorly
  43. innermost intercostal
    • Origin: medial edge of costal groove of rib above
    • Insertion: internal aspect of superior margin of rib below
    • Innervation: intercostal nerves; T1-T11
    • Function: [acts wit internal intercostal muscles] most active during expiration; supports intercostal space; moves ribs inferiorly

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview