Music Terms

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pdmusic
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Music Terms
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2010-03-21 14:39:10
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Musical terms that would be good to know for orals.
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  1. Aleatoric
    performance that is governed by the chance decisions of performers, not by notational structures.
  2. What is the collection of music composed by the ancestral predecessors of J. S. Bach.
    Alt-Bachisches Archiv
  3. What is the Alt-Bachisches Archiv?
    a collection of music composed by the ancestral predecessors of J. S. Bach.
  4. What is Alternatim?
    It is the alternation of polyphony and Gregorian chant, usually in sections of music set to verses of Biblical text; a compositional technique seen in settings of many Magnificats during the early decades of the Renaissance era.
  5. What is the alternation of polyphony and Gregorian chant, usually in sections of music set to verses of Biblical text; a compositional technique seen in settings of many Magnificats during the early decades of the Renaissance era.
    Alternatim
  6. What is a genre of composition with a sacred text in English, generally used in Protestant worship services; the Protestant equivalent of a Catholic motet. There were two types of anthem in England during the late Renaissance and Baroque eras, full and verse. The full anthems were scored for chorus without soloists; the verse anthems were scored for soloists, chorus, and accompaniment of either organ or consort of viols.
    Anthem
  7. What is an anthem?
    a genre of composition with a sacred text in English, generally used in Protestant worship services; the Protestant equivalent of a Catholic motet. There were two types of anthem in England during the late Renaissance and Baroque eras, full and verse. The full anthems were scored for chorus without soloists; the verse anthems were scored for soloists, chorus, and accompaniment of either organ or consort of viols.
  8. What is a Ballett (pronounced bal-et) or Balletto?
    It's a secular musical genre of the Renaissance era in England and Italy, characterized by homophony, repeated sections of music, dance qualities, and fa la la refrains.
  9. What is a secular musical genre of the Renaissance era in England and Italy, characterized by homophony, repeated sections of music, dance qualities, and fa la la refrains?
    Ballett (pronounced bal-et) or Balletto
  10. What is an independent melodic bass line in vocal compositions of the Baroque era, generally with figures underneath. The bass line is to be played by instruments such as the cello, violone, and bassoon, and the figures are to be realized by chord producing instruments such as the harpsichord, organ, theorbo, and lute. Participation of multiple instruments-one or more to play the melodic bass line and one or more to play the harmonies-is assumed.
    Basso continuo
  11. What is a Basso continuo?
    It is an independent melodic bass line in vocal compositions of the Baroque era, generally with figures underneath. The bass line is to be played by instruments such as the cello, violone, and bassoon, and the figures are to be realized by chord producing instruments such as the harpsichord, organ, theorbo, and lute. Participation of multiple instruments-one or more to play the melodic bass line and one or more to play the harmonies-is assumed.
  12. What is a melodic bass line that is not independent but instead that follows the lowest sounding voice part of a composition; predecessor of the basso continuo. Performance by only one melodic bass instrument is standard.
    Basso seguente
  13. What is a basso seguente?
    It is a melodic bass line that is not independent but instead that follows the lowest sounding voice part of a composition; predecessor of the basso continuo. Performance by only one melodic bass instrument is standard.
  14. What is a genre of composition begun in the Baroque era, generally secular and scored for solo voices and basso continuo during the early part of the era, and sacred and scored for solos, chorus, and instruments during the latter part of the era and beyond. The sacred works are frequently divided into multiple movements?
    Cantata
  15. What is a cantata?
    It is a genre of composition begun in the Baroque era, generally secular and scored for solo voices and basso continuo during the early part of the era, and sacred and scored for solos, chorus, and instruments during the latter part of the era and beyond. The sacred works are frequently divided into multiple movements.
  16. What is a cantoris?
    It is the portion of a choral ensemble in an Anglican church that is on the left side (facing the high altar) of the chancel area-the cantor's side. The cantoris faces the decani.
  17. What is the portion of a choral ensemble in an Anglican church that is on the left side (facing the high altar) of the chancel area-the cantor's side. The cantoris faces the decani.
    Cantoris
  18. What is a cantus firmus?
    It is one part of a vocal texture, usually the tenor voice part, that is set in longer note values than the other parts; most often a preexistent melody (i.e., a Gregorian chant, hymn or chorale melody, or popular tune).
  19. What is one part of a vocal texture, usually the tenor voice part, that is set in longer note values than the other parts; most often a preexistent melody (i.e., a Gregorian chant, hymn or chorale melody, or popular tune).
    Cantus firmus
  20. What is a secular musical genre of the Renaissance era in England and Italy, characterized by a predominant melody in the top-most part of a vocal texture?
    Canzonet or canzonetta
  21. What is a canzonet or canzonetta?
    It is a secular musical genre of the Renaissance era in England and Italy, characterized by a predominant melody in the top-most part of a vocal texture.
  22. What is a catch?
    It is a type of English round set to a humorous or ribald text and scored for three male voices. Cecilian - a reference to St Cecilia, patron saint of music, and to societies of composers in Germany and Austria during the Romantic era who desired a return of church music to the motet style of Palestrina.
  23. What is a type of English round set to a humorous or ribald text and scored for three male voices. Cecilian - a reference to St Cecilia, patron saint of music, and to societies of composers in Germany and Austria during the Romantic era who desired a return of church music to the motet style of Palestrina.
    It is a catch
  24. What is a chalumeau?
    It is a woodwind instrument similar to a recorder, used mainly in the French Baroque.
  25. What is a Chanson?
    It is a small-scale secular vocal composition set to a French text and meant for performance by soloists in ensemble during the Medieval and Renaissance eras; counterpart to the Italian madrigal.
  26. What is a woodwind instrument similar to a recorder, used mainly in the French Baroque.
    A chalumeau.
  27. What is a small-scale secular vocal composition set to a French text and meant for performance by soloists in ensemble during the Medieval and Renaissance eras; counterpart to the Italian madrigal?
    Chanson
  28. What is a Chantre ordinaire?
    It is a normal singer in chapels and courts of the French Renaissance and Baroque.
  29. What is the term for a normal singer in chapels and courts of the French Renaissance and Baroque?
    Chantre ordinaire
  30. What is the German term for a hymn used in the Lutheran Church?
    Chorale
  31. What is a Chorale?
    It is the German term for a hymn used in the Lutheran Church.
  32. What does "colla parte" mean?
    Italian term meaning with the parts; used to designate instruments that should play from and with vocal parts.
  33. What is an Italian term meaning with the parts; used to designate instruments that should play from and with vocal parts?
    Colla parte
  34. What was the "collegium musicum?"
    It is a society of amateur musicians, usually in a college or university, that presents regular concerts.
  35. What was a society of amateur musicians, usually in a college or university, that presents regular concerts called?
    Collegium musicum
  36. What is the Concert spirituel?
    It was the the first public concert society in France; begun in 1725.
  37. What was the first public concert society in France; begun in 1725.
    Concert spirituel
  38. Define concertato.
    a style of composition during the Baroque era that employed contrasts of smaller and larger performing forces, usually soloists and a few instruments for the smaller forces (generally called concertino), and chorus and full orchestration for the larger forces (callee. concerto grosso).
  39. What is a style of composition during the Baroque era that employed contrasts of smaller and larger performing forces, usually soloists and a few instruments for the smaller forces (generally called concertino), and chorus and full orchestration for the larger forces (callee. concerto grosso).
    concertato
  40. Define Concerto delle donne.
    It was an ensemble of women in the court of Ferrara in the mid- and late-sixteenth century; famous for virtuosic performances of madrigals.
  41. What was an ensemble of women in the court of Ferrara in the mid- and late-sixteenth century; famous for virtuosic performances of madrigals.
    Concerto della donne
  42. What is a Contrafactum?
    It is a vocal work in which a new text, generally sacred, has been substituted for the original one, generally secular.
  43. What is a vocal work in which a new text, generally sacred, has been substituted for the original one, generally secular.
    Contrafactum
  44. What is the Decani?
    the portion of a choral ensemble in an Anglican church that is on the right side (facing the high altar) of the chancel area-the dean's side. The decani faces the cantons.
  45. What is the portion of a choral ensemble in an Anglican church that is on the right side (facing the high altar) of the chancel area-the dean's side, and faces the cantons.
    The decani
  46. What is a style of composition during the Medieval era in which all parts of a composition move at the same speed. During the Renaissance, this referred to a similar style, but with a melodically prominent upper voice part, sometimes called treble dominated.
    Discant
  47. Define discant.
    It is a style of composition during the Medieval era in which all parts of a composition move at the same speed. During the Renaissance, this referred to a similar style, but with a melodically prominent upper voice part, sometimes called treble dominated.
  48. Define dodecaphonic.
    It is a style of music popular during the first half of the twentieth century in which the twelve tones of the chromatic scale were organized in series to create a basis for the melodic and choral construction of a composition.
  49. What is a style of music popular during the first half of the twentieth century in which the twelve tones of the chromatic scale were organized in series to create a basis for the melodic and choral construction of a composition.
    dodecaphonic
  50. Define Elevation.
    French term generally used for a motet sung during the portion of the Roman Catholic mass in which the elements of communion are lifted.
  51. What is a French term generally used for a motet sung during the portion of the Roman Catholic mass in which the elements of communion are lifted.
    Elevation
  52. What is a technique of composition during the fifteenth century employing sonorities that move in parallel motion.
    Fauxbourdon
  53. What is fauxbourdon?
    a technique of composition during the fifteenth century employing sonorities that move in parallel motion.
  54. Define Formes Fixes.
    French term for fixed forms, referring to compositional structures characterized by repeated verse/refrain schemes used in secular music of the Medieval and early Renaissance eras.
  55. What are the typical types of the formes fixes?
    Ballade, rondeau, and virelai
  56. The ballade, rondeau, and virelai are all what?
    Formes fixess
  57. What is a secular vocal genre of the Renaissance era generally set to a humorous or ribald Italian text; the musical style is mainly homophonic, and scoring is for SATB solo voices.
    Frottola
  58. What is a frottola?
    It is a secular vocal genre of the Renaissance era generally set to a humorous or ribald Italian text; the musical style is mainly homophonic, and scoring is for SATB solo voices.
  59. What is the term for a pre-Classical style of music in the latter half of the eighteenth century, generally homophonic and light in texture?
    Galant
  60. Describe the Galant style.
    a pre-Classical style of music in the latter half of the eighteenth century, generally homophonic and light in texture.
  61. Define Gebrauchmusik.
    German for "practical or useful music," used to describe compositions in the first half of the twentieth century that were harmonically accessible and technically unchallenging and that could be performed by amateurs.
  62. What is German for "practical or useful music," used to describe compositions in the first half of the twentieth century that were harmonically accessible and technically unchallenging and that could be performed by amateurs?
    Gebrauchmusik
  63. What is a head motif?
    a group of notes, usually from four to six, used as a motto or compositional unifying device at the beginning of the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei portions of masses during the Renaissance era.
  64. What is a group of notes, usually from four to six, used as a motto or compositional unifying device at the beginning of the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei portions of masses during the Renaissance era.
    Head motif
  65. Define "Historia."
    Latin for history or a narrative of past events, used to indicate a genre of German settings of the nativity and passion/resurrection stories during the Medieval, Renaissance, and early Baroque eras.
  66. What is Latin for history or a narrative of past events, used to indicate a genre of German settings of the nativity and passion/resurrection stories during the Medieval, Renaissance, and early Baroque eras.
    Historia
  67. What is the evangelist or narrator in an oratorio called?
    Historicus
  68. Define historicus.
    the evangelist or narrator in an oratorio.
  69. What is a compositional device of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries characterized by the quick alternation of single notes or a short group of notes between two voices; as one note or group of notes sounds in one voice, the other voice is silent?
    hocket
  70. What is a hocket?
    a compositional device of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries characterized by the quick alternation of single notes or a short group of notes between two voices; as one note or group of notes sounds in one voice, the other voice is silent.
  71. What is Ingressus?
    the Ambrosian chant that corresponds to the Roman introit, generally occurring settings for Vespers services.
  72. What is the Ambrosian chant that corresponds to the Roman introit, generally occurring settings for Vespers services.
    Ingressus
  73. What is a nonliturgical monophonic sacred composition of the thirteenth fourteenth centuries, generally syllabic and set in verse/refrain format to an Italian text?
    Lauda
  74. Define Lauda.
    It is a nonliturgical monophonic sacred composition of the thirteenth fourteenth centuries, generally syllabic and set in verse/refrain format to an Italian text?
  75. What is madrigalism?
    It is a form of word painting in which textual images are matched by musical patterns; particularly evident in madrigals of the Renaissance era.
  76. What is a form of word painting in which textual images are matched by musical patterns; particularly evident in madrigals of the Renaissance era.
    Madrigalism.
  77. What is a masque?
    It is a type of work popular in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries in England that combines vocal and instrumental music, dance, elaborate stage scenery, and poetry.
  78. What is a French term for solemn low mass?
    Messe basse solennelle?
  79. What is musica reservata?
    It is a term used during the Renaissance era to describe compositions that set texts in an expressive manner without overt word painting.
  80. What is a term used during the Renaissance era to describe compositions that set texts in an expressive manner without overt word painting.
    Musica reservata
  81. What is a composition of the twentieth century characterized by the use of all eight notes of the diatonic scale in a tonal manner?
    Pandiatonic
  82. What is pandiatonic?
    It is a composition of the twentieth century characterized by the use of all eight notes of the diatonic scale in a tonal manner.
  83. What is pantonal?
    a composition of the twentieth century characterized by the use of all or most of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale used in a tonal or diatonic manner.
  84. What is a composition of the twentieth century characterized by the use of all or most of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale used in a tonal or diatonic manner?
    Pantonal
  85. What is Italian for "first practice," used to refer to music of the Renaissance era in which polyphony was supposedly more important than text; these compositions are characterized by imitative polyphony scored for voices a cappella or for voices with nonindependent basso continuo accompaniment?
    Prima practica
  86. What is prima practica?
    Italian for "first practice," used to refer to music of the Renaissance era in which polyphony was supposedly more important than text; these compositions are characterized by imitative polyphony scored for voices a cappella or for voices with nonindependent basso continuo accompaniment.
  87. What is a composition in which multiple preexisting melodies are presented either successively or simultaneously.
    Quodlibet
  88. What is a quodlibet?
    It is a composition in which multiple preexisting melodies are presented either successively or simultaneously.
  89. What is a ritornello?
    It is a short passage of music, usually instrumental, that occurs more than once as an interlude.
  90. What is a short passage of music, usually instrumental, that occurs more than once as an interlude?
    Ritornello
  91. What is Sarum chant?
    It is chant used in England, especially at Salisbury Cathedral between the thirteenth and the sixteenth centuries.
  92. What is a chant used in England, especially at Salisbury Cathedral between the thirteenth and the sixteenth centuries?
    Sarum chant
  93. Define seconda prattica.
    Italian for second practice, used to refer to music of the Baroque era in which melody and rhythm were subordinate to text; these compositions are characterized by vertically conceived textures and scoring for soloists and chorus with independent basso continuo accompaniment.
  94. What is Italian for second practice, used to refer to music of the Baroque era in which melody and rhythm were subordinate to text; these compositions are characterized by vertically conceived textures and scoring for soloists and chorus with independent basso continuo accompaniment?
    Seconda prattica
  95. What is a Sepolcra?
    It is a type of Passion oratorio, generally performed on Maundy Thursday and Good Friday during the Baroque era, with costumes, some acting, and stage consisting of a replica of the holy sepulchre.
  96. What is a type of Passion oratorio, generally performed on Maundy Thursday and Good Friday during the Baroque era, with costumes, some acting, and stage consisting of a replica of the holy sepulchre?
    Sepolcra
  97. What is a sequence?
    It is a type of trope inserted between phrases of liturgical chant during the Medieval era; also the repetition of a short group of notes at ascending or descending pitch levels.
  98. What is a type of trope inserted between phrases of liturgical chant during the Medieval era; also the repetition of a short group of notes at ascending or descending pitch levels?
    Sequence
  99. Define Sine nomine.
    Latin for "without name;" given to a mass composed in the Renaissance era that has no identified source of compositional material.
  100. What is Latin for "without name;" given to a mass composed in the Renaissance era that has no identified source of compositional material.
    Sine nomine
  101. Define "Si placet."
    Latin for "as you please;" used to indicate vocal and instrumental scoring during the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras according to resources at hand or personal preferences; refers to the addition or deletion of voices or instruments to a composer's scoring.
  102. What is Latin for "as you please;" used to indicate vocal and instrumental scoring during the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras according to resources at hand or personal preferences; refers to the addition or deletion of voices or instruments to a composer's scoring.
    Si placet
  103. What is "soggetto cavato?"
    Italian for "carved from the words;" a cantus firmus constructed of pitches that correspond to vowels of a name.
  104. What is Italian for "carved from the words;" a cantus firmus constructed of pitches that correspond to vowels of a name.
    Soggetto cavato
  105. What is "Stile antico?"
    Italian for "ancient style;" used to refer to compositions of the Baroque era in the Renaissance prima prattica style.
  106. What is Italian for "ancient style;" used to refer to compositions of the Baroque era in the Renaissance prima prattica style.
    Stile antico
  107. What is stile concertato?
    Italian for "concerted style;" used to refer to compositions of the Baroque era that employ contrasts of smaller and larger performing forces?
  108. What is Italian for "concerted style;" used to refer to compositions of the Baroque era that employ contrasts of smaller and larger performing forces?
    Stile concertato
  109. What is stile moderno?
    Italian for "modern style;" used to refer to compositions of the Baroque era in the seconda prattica style.
  110. What is Italian for "modern style;" used to refer to compositions of the Baroque era in the seconda prattica style.
    Stile moderno
  111. What is Stile rappresentativo?
    Italian for "representative style;" used to refer to compositions of the early Baroque era that employ freedom of rhythm, as in recitative, to emulate natural speech patterns.
  112. What is Italian for "representative style;" used to refer to compositions of the early Baroque era that employ freedom of rhythm, as in recitative, to emulate natural speech patterns?
    Stile rappresentativo
  113. What is a Symphonie?
    French term for an orchestral prelude or introductory movement.
  114. What is a French term for an orchestral prelude or introductory movement?
    Symphonie
  115. What is a composite Mass?
    It is a 14th century Mass created by compiling individual movements into a single mass ordinary.
  116. What is a 14th century Mass created by compiling individual movements into a single mass ordinary?
    Composite Mass
  117. What are the dates of the Ars Antiqua?
    ca1260-1320
  118. What corresponds to the dates ca1260-1320?
    Ars antiqua
  119. Are the Ars Antiqua motets more sacred or secular?
    They become more secular
  120. What topic is popular with Ars Antiqua motets?
    courtly love
  121. What are the associated dates for Ars Nova?
    ca1320-1400
  122. What are the dates 1320-1400 associated with?
    Ars Nova
  123. What major compositional technique came about in the Ars Nova?
    isorhythm
  124. For a motet to be isorhythmic, isorhythm must be in what voice?
    Tenor
  125. The early motet became a distinct genre from what previous musical thing?
    substitute discant clausulae
  126. What is a canonic mass?
    Is a mass based on abstract rules of complexity in the manipulation of the cf.
  127. In what ways was a cantus firmus from an early Renaissance motet manipulated rhythmically?
    Diminution, augmentation, and mensural transformation
  128. Diminution, augmentation, and mensural transformation are all what forms of musical variation in the early renaissance motet cf?
    Rhythmic
  129. In what ways was a cantus firmus from an early Renaissance motet manipulated melodically?
    transposed, retrograde, inversion, retrograde inversion
  130. Transposed, retrograde, inversion, retrograde inversion are all what forms of musical variation in the early renaissance motet cf?
    Melodic
  131. What is a cyclic cf mass?
    A mass from the early renaissance that based all movements on the same pre-existing material.
  132. The use of the head motive lead to the what form of renaissance mass?
    Paraphrase mass
  133. What type of music served as the precursor to the early Italian madrigal?
    Frottola
  134. The early Italian madrigal that had what style of texts?
    Petrarchist
  135. What significant contrast exists between the Frottola and the early Italian madrigal?
    Frottola is light ephemera, whereas the Italian madrigal is serious.
  136. What musical characteristics appear in the early Italian madrigal?
    a4, simple and chordal
  137. What musical characteristics appear in the serious style of the middle Italian madrigal?
    a5, more contrapuntal
  138. What musical characteristics appear in the hybrid style of the middle Italian madrigal?
    a5 w/ divided soprano, frequent repetition, little counterpoint
  139. Describe the texts of the hybrid style of the middle Italian madrigal.
    Occasional or pastoral
  140. What is a madrigal comedy?
    A cycle of madrigals in a dramatic sequence with elements of dialogue (often with a plot) between specific characters
  141. Describe the characteristics of the ornamented style of later Italian madrigal.
    Court-based, more virtuosic singing, with greater contrast (textual, textural, tonal, stylistic), increase in word painting
  142. The expressionist or "mannerist" madrigal is known for what musical characteristics?
    Extravagent emotions reflected in extravgent musical gestures
  143. What is the significance of the recitational style of late Italian madrigal?
    Experimentation in pure declamation points to "secunda prattica"
  144. What is the Doctrine of Affections?
    It is the belief that human anatomy can be altered through the stimulation of emotional response.
  145. The belief that human anatomy can be altered through the stimulation of emotional response is proposed in what Baroque philosophy?
    The Doctrine of Affections
  146. What is concertato style?
    A style based on contrasts (and combinations) of instrumental (or vocal) groupings that developed out of Venetian cori spezzatti motets.
  147. What is a style based on contrasts (and combinations) of instrumental (or vocal) groupings that developed out of Venetian cori spezzatti motets?
    Concertato style
  148. What is mixed concertato style?
    concertato style with texture and groupings changes throughout
  149. What specific form of the concerto style involves texture and groupings changes throughout?
    mixed concertato style
  150. What musical forms served as the predecessors of the early Italian oratorio?
    Laudes to Dialogues
  151. What two languages were used in the early oratorios?
    Volgare (Italian) and Latin
  152. Volgare (Italian) and Latin were the languages of what musical genre?
    Early Italian oratorio
  153. Define: oratorio passion.
    a Baroque passion that was performed in the church as a part of the service.
  154. What is a Baroque passion that was performed in the church as a part of the service?
    Oratorio passion
  155. Define: passion oratorio.
    a Baroque oratorio that was performed outside of the church as sacred entertainment.
  156. What is a Baroque oratorio that was performed outside of the church as sacred entertainment.
    Passion oratorio
  157. Define: Responsorial passion.
    a Renaissance Passion with monophonic chant for the Evangelist and polyphonic writing for the turba chorus.
  158. What a Renaissance Passion with monophonic chant for the Evangelist and polyphonic writing for the turba chorus?
    Responsorial passion
  159. What was the function of the German church cantata?
    The German church cantata was intended to be function as the primary music of the Lutheran service, which Bach considered a musical sermon.
  160. Renaissance=Polyphony; Baroque=?
    Homophony and monody
  161. Baroque=Homophony and monody; Renaissance=?
    Polyphony
  162. Renaissance=Independent voicing; Baroque=?
    Treble-bass polarity
  163. Baroque=Treble-bass polarity; Renaissance=?
    Independent voicing
  164. Renaissance=Non-metric rhythm; Baroque=?
    Both extreme metric and flexible rhythm
  165. Baroque=Both extreme metric and flexible rhythm; Renaissance=?
    Non-metric rhythm
  166. Renaissance=Modal counterpoint; Baroque=?
    Tonal counterpoint
  167. Baroque=Tonal counterpoint; Renaissance=?
    Modal counterpoint
  168. Renaissance=Lack of functional harmony; Baroque=?
    Functional harmony exists
  169. Baroque=Existence of functional harmony; Renaissance=?
    Lack of functional harmony
  170. Renaissance=Restrained representation of the words, musica reservata and madrigalism; Baroque=?
    Affective representation of the words, textual absolutism
  171. Baroque=Affective representation of the words, textual absolutism; Renaissance=?
    Restrained representation of the words, musica reservata and madrigalism
  172. Renaissance=Diatonic melody in small range; Baroque=?
    Diatonic and chromatic melody in wide range
  173. Baroque=Diatonic and chromatic melody in wide range; Renaissance=?
    Diatonic melody in small range
  174. Renaissance=Intervallic harmony, and intervallic treatment; Baroque=?
    Chordal harmony and chordal dissonance treatment
  175. Baroque=Chordal harmony and chordal dissonance treatment; Renaissance=?
    Intervallic harmony, and intervallic treatment
  176. Renaissance=Chords are by-products of the part writing; Baroque=?
    Chords are self-contained entities
  177. Baroque=Chords are self-contained entities; Renaissance=?
    Chords are by-products of the part writing
  178. The middle Italian oratorio developed with opera in what ways?
    shifted from monody to arioso to bel canto (recitative/da capo aria)
  179. What are the three possible text sources for the German cantata?
    Biblical, Verse texts, or Chorale texts
  180. Biblical, Verse texts, or Chorale texts are three possible text sources for what genre?
    German cantata
  181. Describe the musical characteristics of the early German cantata.
    Usually continuous, single movement, sectional work with sinfonia, framing choruses, and interior arias.
  182. What are the three primary differences between the early German cantata and the later "Reform" cantata?
    Madrigalian verse, introduction of recit & da capo arias, and greater independence of sections creating multi-movement works.
  183. Who first introduced Madrigalian verse into the German cantata?
    Erdmann Neumeister
  184. What contribution did Erdmann Neumeister make to German music?
    Introduced Madrigalian verse into the German cantata
  185. What is madrigalian verse?
    A new type of sacred poetry including poetic insertions into the scriptural/chorale framework, with the intent of personalizing the texts (pietism)
  186. What is a new type of sacred poetry including poetic insertions into the scriptural/chorale framework, with the intent of personalizing the texts (pietism)?
    Madrigalian verse
  187. What types of movements became possible in the later "Reform" cantata?
    Concerto, recit, da capo aria, chorale, and sinfonia
  188. The concerto, recit, da capo aria, chorale, and sinfonia became movements for what genre of music?
    "Reform" cantata
  189. Describe the characteristics of the English ode.
    multi-mvmt work for chorus, soli, orch, usually for the specially occasions like the King's birthday
  190. What instruments comprise the Viennese String trio?
    2 violins and continuo
  191. What is the compositional device that allows for different parts to sing different portions of text in order to accommodate for longer texts in shorter settings?
    Telescoping

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