Anatomy and Physiology I - Chapter 2

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Anatomy and Physiology I - Chapter 2
2011-05-29 14:22:04
anatomy physiology chapter two chemical

The Chemical Level of Organization
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  1. The smallest stable units of matter
  2. The Three Types of Subatomic Particles
    Protons, Neutrons, Electrons
  3. Positive charge; weight of approximately 1 Dalton
  4. No charge; weight similar to protons
  5. Negative charge; weight of 1/1836th Dalton
  6. Determines an element's atomic number
    The number of protons in an atom
  7. An ion with a positive charge
  8. Classified on the basis of their atomic number.
    Classification of Elements
  9. Atoms whose nuclei contain the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons (different mass #)
  10. The total number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus that helps designate a particular isotope
    Mass Number
  11. Determines an atom's chemical behavior
    Eletron Arrangement
  12. Determines the reactivity of the element
    Outermost Electron Shell
  13. Elements that do not readily participate in chemical processes
  14. A chemical structure sufficiently stable, electrically neutral group consisting of at least two atoms held together by covalent bonds
  15. A chemical substance made up of atoms of two or more elements, regardless of the type of bond joining them
    A Compound
  16. The Three Types of Chemical Bonds
    • Ionic
    • Covalent (non-polar and polar)
    • Hydrogen
  17. A chemical bond that has an ATTRACTION between positive cations and negative anions
    Ionic Bond
  18. A chemical bond that creates an UNEQUAL SHARING of electrons. Example: in a water molecule, an oxygen atom forms covalent bonds with two hydrogen atoms
    Polar Covalent Bond
  19. A chemical bond that cannot create molecules, but can CHANGE MOLECULAR SHAPES or pull molecules together
    Hydrogen Bonds
  20. The weakest type of chemical bond
    Hydrogen Bond
  21. A type of reaction that breaks a molecule into smaller fragments AB ---> A + B
    Decomposition Reaction
  22. A type of reaction that assembles larger molecules from smaller components A + B ---> AB

    (the opposite of decomposition)
    Synthesis Reaction
  23. A type of reaction that shuffles parts of the reacting molecules around

    AB + CD ---> AD + CB
    Exchange Reaction
  24. Chemical reactions are theoretically believed to be
    A + B <---> AB
    Freely Reversible
  25. Promotes chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy requirements
  26. A class of substances that enzymes belongs to
  27. Compounds that accelerate chemical reactions without themselves being permanently changed or consumed
  28. Reactions that release energy (heat)
  29. A chemical reaction requiring more energy to begin the reaction than is released as it proceeds; absorbs energy
  30. Consists of all the molecules synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside our bodies
  31. The Two Classifications of Metabolites
    Organic and Inorganic
  32. Compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen as their primary structural component
    Organic Compounds
  33. Compounds that ARE NOT primarily carbon and hydrogen
    Inorganic Compounds
  34. Soluble inorganic molecules whose ions will conduct an electrical current in a solution
  35. Examples of Electrolytes
    Sodium, Chloride, Potassium
  36. Water molecules disrupt the ionic bonds of a solute and a mixute of ions are created (electrolytes)
    Ionization Process
  37. A pH level above 7
    Basic (alkaline)
  38. A solution that has more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions
    Basic (alkaline) pH > 7
  39. An organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio near 1:2:1
  40. The most important metabolic "fuel" in the body
  41. Molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas (the same types and numbers of atoms, but different shapes)
  42. Has many side branches all consisting of chains of glucose molecules
    Polysaccharide Glycogen (animal starch)
  43. Make and stores glycogen
    Liver Tissues and Muscle Tissues
  44. The molecular formula for a monounsaturated fatty acid, which contains only ONE DOUBLE COVALENT BOND
  45. The molecular formula for a polyunsaturated fatty acid, which contains MULTIPLE COVALENT BONDS
  46. A type of fatty acid where each carbon atom in the hydrocarbon tail has four single covalent bonds
    Saturated Fatty Acid
  47. A type of fatty acid where some of the carbon-to-carbon bondsare double covalent bonds
    Unsaturated Fatty Acid
  48. A type of fatty acid that has a single unsaturated double covalent bond in the hydrocarbon tail
    Monounsaturated Fatty Acid
  49. A type of fatty acid that has multiple unsaturated double covalent bonds
    Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid
  50. Three Types of Structural Lipids
    Cholesterol, Phospholipids, Glycolipids
  51. Known as a structural STEROIDAL lipid
  52. A class of structural lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes because they can form lipid bilayers
  53. A type of bond that creates a covalent bond between the carboxylic acid group of one amino acid and the amino group of another
    Peptide Bond
  54. Molecules consisting of amino acids held together by peptide bonds
  55. A type of protein structure that results from the bonds that develop between atoms at different parts of the polypeptide chain (contains subdivisions alpha-helix and flat pleated sheet
    Secondary Structure (amino acid interactions)
  56. Large proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans-the carbohydrate part) covalently attached to their polypeptide side-chains
  57. A type of protein that are glycoproteins and are heavily glycosylated
  58. An acid that stores and processes information at the molecular level, inside cells
    Nucleic Acids
  59. Makes up nucleic acid
  60. The Three Components to Each Nucleotide
    • A Sugar
    • A Phosphate Group
    • A Nitrogenous Base
  61. DNA Pairing
    • C - G
    • T - A
  62. RNA Pairing
    • C - G
    • U- A