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  1. L6 Describe the various types of exceptional learners.
    • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) - Fidgety, Distractible, Can't sit still for longer than a few minutes, Messy handwriting, Clumsy, Immature, and Disorganized.
    • Speech and Language Disorders - Articulation disorders (Problems in pronouncing sounds correctly), Voice disorders (Speech is harsh, hoarse, too loud, or too low-pitched), Fluency disorders (Stuttering), and Language disorders (Significant challenge in receptive language (understanding language) or expressive language (expressing thoughts, communicating with others))
    • Mental Retardation (MR) - range from mild to severe, school districts are placing mildly mentally retarded students in regular classrooms. characteristics are A lack of age-appropriate self-help skills, such as dressing, feeding, toileting, Lack of ability to learn Poor adaptive skills, such as having trouble getting along with others, Lack of self-control. Qulification for MR are I.Q. below 70, Difficulty with adaptive skills, and Developmental period. Common Genetic Factors causing Mental Retardation include; Down syndrome and Fragile X syndrome.
    • Emotional and Behavioral Disorders - exhibited by aggression, depressions, fears and inappropriate interaction in relationships. Turned Inward students may show signs of depression, anxiety and fear. Turned Outward students exhibited disruptive, defiant, aggressive behaviors and are removed from the regular classroom.
    • Sensory Disorders - individual's five senses do not function properly; msot common are visual impairments and hearing impairments.
    • Visual Impairments - students holding a book close to their face, and/or students rubbing their eyes, and squinting. More servere cases are either low vision and able to read large print or educationally blind and not able to use their vision to learn.
    • Hearing Impairments - student turns his/her head toward the speaker, asks to have things repeated, and does not follow direction on a regular basis.
    • Physical Disorders - Two areas commonly found are orthopedic impairments and seizure disorders.
    • Orthopedic Impairments - movements are restricted and lack of control of movements.A common orthopedic impairment is cerebral palsy (CP) and exibit spasticity (rigid muscles). Range from very severe and confined to a wheel chair with no speech to some students with normal speech and a mild limp.
  2. L6 What are the legal aspects of working with disabled children including IDEA, IEP, LRE and inclusion?
    • IDEA: requires states to provide free appropriate public education for all students with disabilities.
    • IEP: Individualized Education Program. an agreement between the parents and the school about the services that will be provided. Includes present performance, measurable goals, when the student isn't in a classroom, and how students takes state tests.
    • LRE: least restrictive environment. educating each child with peers in classroom as much as possible.
    • inclusion: intergration of all students (including severe disibilities) in to regular classes.
  3. L6 From least to most restrictive environments, what planning, placement, and services are available?
    • Tracking: class is formed based on measured ability.
    • Untracking: classes that are not base on measured ability.
    • within class ability: with in class students are split up based on ability.
    • flexible: grouping and regrouping students based on learning needs.
    • Joplin Plan: group students by ability in a subject regardless of age or grade.
  4. L6 Describe the characteristics of gifted learners (include the four methods used for educating children).
    • learns easier and faster than peers.
    • learns in different ways than peers
    • requires less support from adults
    • makes discoveries on their own
    • show an intense and obsessive interest in an area
    • Acceleration (learning grammatical structure early), enrichment (short story and poetry writing), sophistication (mastering the structure of plays, sonnets, ect.) , and novelty (rewrite Shakespear's plays).
  5. L6 Describe the characteristics of gifted learners and include one method of educating children who are gifted learners.
  6. L6 Explain the 2 options School districts follow for determining a student’s eligibility under the category of learning disabilities.
    • option 1
    • Step 1: Determination of Underachievement - Oral expression, Listening comprehension, Written expression, Basic reading skill, Reading fluency skills, Reading comprehension, Mathematics calculation, and Mathematics problem solving.
    • Step 2: Determination of Response to Interventions or a Pattern of Strengths and Weaknesses (or Both) - Does the student fail to make sufficient progress in achievement considered adequate for his age
    • Step 3: Determination of Appropriate Instruction - the school or district must provide documentation that proves that the student has been provided appropriate instruction by qualified personnel.

    • Option 2:
    • 1. A severe discrepancy between the student's intellectual ability and academic achievement.
    • 2. An exclusion criterion.
    • 3. A need for special education services.
  7. L7 What is behaviorism?
    A school of thought that focuses on the observable behavior, instead of on mental or cognitive processes.
  8. L7 What is the Hawthorne Effect?
    When you over use a reinforcer and it loses its motivating effect
  9. L7 Describe Skinner's Schedules of Reinforcement.
    • Fixed Interval: Reinforcement for a correct response only after a certain period of time has passed--same time period (ex. Weekly spelling bee)
    • Variable Interval: Time interval between reinforcement, varies between trials (ex. If you know the teacher gives pop quizzes, you will study on a regular basis, so you are always ready)
    • Fixed Ratio: Reinforcement for a predetermined or fixed number of responses (no matter how long in-between) Time doesn't make any difference---it could occur fast or slow. (ex. Read five books, then get certificate)
    • Variable Ratio: Reinforcement comes after a varied number of responses. Based on number of responses, not time. (ex. SLOT MACHINE, No rhyme or reason!)
  10. L7 How are Skinner's Schedules of Reinforcement and behaviorism incorporated in our schools today?
    through classroom management
  11. L7 What is Thorndike's Law of Effect.
    responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation.
  12. L7 Describe Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory.
    • Social Learning Theory: People learn by watching what others do.
    • Social Cognitive Theory: theory that adds concern with cognitive factors such as, beliefs, self -perceptions, and expectations to social learning theory.
  13. L7 Explain 'continuous' and 'intermittent' reinforcement.
    • Continuous reinforcement: continuously reinforcing a specific desired behavior.
    • Intermittent reinforcement: dependent on some schedule or a combination of schedules.
  14. L7 Define each element of Skinner's schedules of reinforcement.
    • Interval schedules: Based on time
    • Ratio schedules: Based on number of responses
    • Fixed schedules: Fixed schedules deliver reinforcement at a constant predictable rate.
    • Variable schedules: Variable schedules deliver reinforcement that is not constant but varied.
    • primary reinforcer: something that is basic to human function, such as: Love, Food, Sex, Water, Shelter, and Physical comfort.
    • secondary reinforcer: a neutral object or gesture that acquires the power to reinforce behavior as a result of it being paired with one or more primary reinforcers.
  15. L7 Explain 'positive' and 'negative' reinforcers.
    • positive: strenghthening behavior by presenting a desired stimulus after the behavior.
    • negative: strenghtening behavior by removing an aversive (irritating or unpleasent) stimulus when the behavior occurs.
  16. L8 How does the brain process information?
    When someone pays attention to something in the sensory register, it enters the short-term memory then it moves into long-term memory (LTM) where it is stored. Information from the LTM or the STM passes to the response generator where it is organized to generate a response. From the response generator, information moves to the effectors, which produce a response, such as: speaking, writing, or moving.
  17. L8 What are the methods of rehearsing or elaborating information to enhance retention?
    chunking or mnemonics
  18. L8 What is Metacognition? What are some ways to improve children's metacognition?
    • Metacognition refers to the ability to know about how you know.
    • Using mnemonics such as a writing strategy called DEFENDS.
    • thinking out loud while solving a math problem.
  19. L8 List the knowledge factors of ’metacognition’.
    • Declarative knowledge: knowledge that can be stated through word or symbols. For example, when a student tells the teacher how they divided fraction.
    • Procedural knowledge: the knowledge that is preformed. For example, a student acts out dividing fractions.
    • Conditional knowledge: the knowledge of knowing when and why to use declarative and procedural knowledge. For example, when given multiple math questions a student must decipher which math method to use on which question.
  20. L8 Define 'chunking' and 'mnemonics' in short-term memory.
    • CHUNKING: chunking information together to try and determine if the brain could expand the number of items it could remember at one time.
    • MNEMONICS: Mnemonics aretechniques to help with memory and also help short-term memory retain information.
  21. L8 Explain 'implicit' and 'explicit' categories in long-term memory.
    • implicit: knowledge that we are not conscious of recalling, but influences behavior or thought without our awareness.
    • classical conditioning effects: conditioned emotional reactions
    • procedural memory: longterm memory of how to do things
    • priming: activating a concept in memory of the spread of activation from one concept to another.
    • explicit: long-term memories that involve deliberate or conscioud recall.
    • episodic memory: long-term memory for information tied to a particular time and place, especially memory of events in a person's life.
    • semantic memory: memory of meaning. general knowledge and fact.
  22. L8 Explain how environment relates to a student's learning and who is responsible for this being a factor.
    The teacher is responsible for a good learning environmet for students. If there is a good learning environment the students are capable of learning more easier.
  23. L9 What are the six categories of Bloom's Taxonomy?
    • LEVEL 1: KNOWLEDGE; The recall of facts
    • LEVEL 2: COMPREHENSION; First level of understanding: translating information into one's own words
    • LEVEL 3: APPLICATION; Using information in a new situation
    • LEVEL 4: ANALYSIS; Breaking information down into small parts
    • LEVEL 5: SYNTHESIS; Constructing something new by putting together several pieces of information into a new whole.
    • LEVEL 6: EVALUATION; Judgment based on criteria of value of worth
  24. L9 What is the difference between teacher-centered instruction and student-centered instruction?
    • Teacher-Centered Instruction is where the teacher has a high level of control over the teaching and learning process.
    • Direct Instruction where the teacher's goals are clear and the teacher controls the pace of the lesson and the materials that are presented
    • Student-Centered instruction moves the focus of the learning activity away from the teacher and toward the students. The teacher is a facilitator not a boss.
  25. L9 What are the eight elements of Madeline Hunter's effective instruction?
    • Anticipatory Set: in order for an individual to learn they must pay attention. So, your first task is to "grab their attention".
    • Objective and Purpose: inform students of what to expect, what is coming next.
    • Input: This is the portion of a lesson where the teacher gives instruction.
    • Modeling: an example of when the teacher demonstrates the activity or lesson
    • Checking for Understanding: teacher obtains information from the students to determine if they have comprehended the material covered in the lesson before continuing on to the next lesson
    • Guided Practice: allows students to practice what they have just learned before teaching the next concept.
    • Closure: culmination of the lesson or concept. Summarization of the topic occurs during this stage.
    • Independent Practice: commonly called homework help in the retention of the material that was covered.
  26. L9 How will you incorporate Bloom's Taxonomy and EEI in your instruction when you teach?
    • Bloom's Taxonomy consists of six levels progressing from the simplest level of knowing something (just facts, just information) to the more complex level where a student can analyze information, apply it, and evaluate it.
    • Using taxonomy will help progress the students using key word in EEI to create a lesson plan that will intreague and help student progression.
  27. L9 Read & review information needed to write Instructional objectives.
    • PERFORMANCE: description of the behavior that your students are expected to perform. The behavior must be measurable and observable.
    • CONDITION: description of the circumstances under which the performance will be carried out.
    • STANDARD: description of the criteria for acceptance of performance as sufficient to master the objective.
    • Use words that are action words.
  28. L10 What are the components of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
    • lower-levels of the hierarchy: basic needs that humans require for physical and psychological well-being.
    • higher-level needs of the hierarchy: when met enables human beings to grow psychologically.
    • As growth needs become satisfied, a person is able to fulfill his or her personal potential and achieve SELF-ACTUALIZATION!
  29. L10 Describe the impact of teacher's expectations on student learning.
    Due to the teacher's high expectations of the students, she obviously communicated this expectation to the students, but she also worked harder herself in keeping the students challenged and motivated.
  30. L10 What is the link between student beliefs, motivation, and success in school?
  31. L10 Summarize the conditions in the ARCS model that impact motivation.
    • Attention: For learning to occur someone must be paying attention. Use of humor helps, and for others doing something novel or unexpected captures their attention.
    • Relevance: students perceiving the material presented as important to them. They need to know that learning this information will help them at a later time.
    • Confidence: When students experience success during learning activities, they infer that they can perform successfully in the future. Success builds confidence.
    • Satisfaction: Students feel satisfied when their expectations about learning are met.
  32. L10 Describe 'intrinsic motivation' and 'extrinsic motivation' in the context of student motivation.
    • Intrinsic motivation: learners work for inernal reasons, such as pleasure, enjoyment, and curiosity.
    • extrinsic motivation: learners work for external reasons, such as money, praise, to please parents, or to avoid punishment.
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Educational Psychology final
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