Biology term 2 review

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Biology term 2 review
2011-05-29 16:13:48

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  1. kinetic energy:
    energy of motion
  2. potential energy:
    stored energy
  3. diffusion:
    the net movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration (movement of any molecule except water) has no membrane
  4. diffusion will continue until __________ is reached
  5. membrane that permit only certain materials to pass through them
  6. osmosis:
    diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane
  7. difference between osmosis and diffusion
    osmosis occurs in water and has a semi-permeable membrane; diffusion has a permeable membrane
  8. name and define the two groups of chemical reactions:
    • endothermic- absorbs heat
    • (w+x+energy------> y+z)
    • exothermic- releases heat
    • (a+b------> c+d+energy)
  9. activation energy:
    the heat necessary to start the burning reaction
  10. the difference between organic and inorganic compounds:
    organic compounds contain carbon and have lived at one time; inorganiccompounds contain less carbon and hve not lived
  11. list four groups of organic compounds are found in:
    carbs, lipids, protein, nucleic acid
  12. basic building blocks of carbs:
  13. building blocks of lipids
    fatty acids
  14. proteins
    amino acids
  15. building blocks of nucleic acids
  16. 3 mixtures
    solution, suspension, colloid
  17. The functions of organic compounds fall into 3 categories:
    structural, enzymatic, storage
  18. function of carbs
    structural and storage
  19. function of lipids
    structural and enzymatic
  20. functions of proteins
    act as enzymes and structural
  21. 4 essential elements found in living organisms:
    carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
  22. examples of monosaccharides:
    glucose, galactose, fructose
  23. when two monosaccharides combine, a _________ is formed.
  24. large complex bonding of monosaccharides are:
  25. 4 examples of polysaccharides:
    starch, chitin, glycogen, cellulose
  26. carbs contain:
    carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
  27. How many amino acids have been identified?
  28. Who developed the model of DNA?
    Watson and Crick
  29. what neutralizes acids and bases?
  30. when combined, an acid and a base ________ each other and form a _____ and ______
    destroy; salt; water
  31. universal solvent:
  32. Homogeneous mixture:
    one that is the same throughout
  33. Solution:
    a homogeneous mixtureof one or moresubstances within another substance
  34. What keeps the solution uniformly mixed?
    The kinetic energy of the moleculesin the solution
  35. the more solute in the solution, the greater the ______
  36. Suspensions:
    mixtures in which the kinetic energy of the molecules is not sufficient to maintain the large solute particles evenly dispersed with in the solvent
  37. Colloid:
    a mixture of fine particles that do not settle out
  38. colloids are often in two stages
    • gel phase- semisolid state
    • sol phase- fluid state
  39. Acid:
    compound that releases hydrogen ions when placed in water
  40. Base:
    compound that releases hydroxyl ions when dissolved in water
  41. Substances that affect the rate of a reaction are called:
  42. A nucleotide has three parts:
    • sugar
    • base
    • phosphate
  43. 4 bases found in DNA:
    • adenine
    • thymine
    • cytosine
    • guanine
  44. Isotonic:
    when the concentrationof solutes outside the cell is the same as the concentration inside the cell
  45. Hypotonic:
    when the solution outside the cell has a higher concentration of water and a lower concentration of solutes that the solution inside the cell (cells will burst from access of water) cytolysis
  46. Hypertonic:
    when the solution outside the cell has a lower concentration of water and a higher concentration of solutes than the inside of the cell (collapses b/c it secretes soo much water to help equalize the water outside) plasmolysis
  47. Entropy:
    the increase in randomness and loss of useble energy
  48. 1st law of thermodynamics-
    energy can neither be created nor destroyed
  49. 2nd law of thermodynamics-
    whenever energy is used, some of it is rendered unusable.
  50. the two basic units of the physical universe are ____ and ______
    matter and energy
  51. An atom is the smallest unit of an
  52. An atom having a negative or positive charge is an
  53. the subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom are _____ and______
    nuetrons and protons
  54. diffusion and osmosis are a form of ______ transport.
  55. cytology-
    the study of cells
  56. "cork" cells were first identified by
    Robert Hook
  57. The cell theory:
    • All living things are made of cells
    • Cells carry on the functions of all living things
    • Cells come from pre-existing cells
  58. Processes carried on by cells: nutrition
    • absorbtion- the transport of dissolved substances into cells
    • digestion- the enzymatic breakdown of substances
  59. internal functions carried on by cells
    • synthesis- the putting together of organic compounds
    • respiration- the breakdown of food with the release of energy
    • movement- locomotion and internal movement
    • irritability- the ability to respond to stimuli
  60. releasing materials carried on by cells
    • excretion- the elimination of soluble waste materials
    • egestion- the elimination of nonsoluble, nondigestible wastes
    • secretion- the synthesizing and release of materials
  61. continuing existence by cells
    • homeostasis- maintaining the steady state
    • reproduction- the formation of new cells
  62. A _______ organism consists of only one cell
  63. a _________ organism consists of of many cells
  64. a ________ is a group of similar cells living together; they can exist alone if they are moved from the other cells
  65. a ________ consists of similar cells that are grouped together and perform similar functions. they cannot exist by themselves.
  66. an ______ consists of tissues that are grouped together to perform a specific function
  67. a ________ is a group of organs working together to perform life's functions
  68. Types of cells:
    • prokaryotic- cells do not have a true nucleus and have a nonmembrane organelles
    • eukaryotic- cells have a true nucleus with membranes around it and cytoplasmic organelles
  69. Cellular boundries:
    • plasma membrane- outermost boundry of the cell
    • cell wall- rigid structure surrounding the cell
    • capsule, sheath, slime coat- outer covering found on some cells; function is to protect
  70. Cytoplasm of the cells
    • cytoplasmic matrix- the watery substance made of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
    • ribosome- site of protein synthesis
    • endoplasmic reticulum- a channel for the movement of substances
    • mitochondria- power house
    • plastids- membrane bound organelles found only in plants
    • golgi body- synthesize and package complex polysaccharides
    • lysosomes- contain enzymes to digest
    • vacuoles- sacs that contain food, water, or wastes
    • centrioles- function in cell division; occur in pairs
    • flagella- tubular extension
    • cilia- hairlike extensions
  71. 2 types of plastids:
    • leucoplasts- store starch and oil
    • chromoplasts- contain pigment and manufacture sugar
  72. types of vacuoles
    • phagocytic- engulf large food particles
    • waste- release wastes outside the cell
    • central- fill w/ water and result in turgor pressure
    • contractilecollect and release excess water outside the cell
  73. vesicle- small vacuoles
    • secretion- secrete materials made by the ER and golgi bodies
    • pinocytic- fluid filled sacs pinched off cellular embrane
  74. Nucleus- control center of the cell
    • nuclear envelope- double membrane around nucleus; has large pores
    • chromatin material- DNA and protective protein found in nucleus
    • nucleolus- contain RNA
  75. Tolerance of the cell
    • optimal range- the cell functions well
    • range of tolerance- cell remains alive but does not function properly
    • limit of tolerance- cell dies
  76. How substances enter cells
    • passive transport- uses no cellular energy
    • passive mediated transport- uses no cellular energy; requires special factors
    • active transport- requires cellular energy
  77. factors that determine if a molecule will pass through a cellular membrane:
    • size of molecule
    • weight of molecule
    • shape of molecule
    • charge of moleule
    • fat solubility of molecule
    • permeability of membrane
    • concentration of molecule
  78. endocytosis:
    process a cell uses to transport substance in bulk across the membrane
  79. exocytosis:
    process whereby vesicles or vacuoles in the cyto0plasm fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents into the solution outside the cell
  80. Autotrophic organism-
    organisms that make their own energy
  81. Heterotrophic organism-
    organisms that depend on another organism for their energy
  82. the major products of photsynthesis are:
    glucose and oxygen
  83. a phosphorous-containing compound that stores energy
  84. Chlorophyll a-
    primary catalyst of photosynthesis
  85. The man who discovered much of the information we know about photosynthesis
  86. the most important function of chlorophyll is to:
    absorb light
  87. The dark phase of photosynthesis occurs in the:
    stroma of the chloroplasts
  88. Anaerobic process does not use
  89. cellular respiration refers to
    the breakdown of glucose into a usable cellular energy
  90. the breakdown of glucose by enzyme action without the presence of oxygen is :
  91. the process that is considered the most energy efficient is
    aerobic cellular respiration
  92. the primary need of all cells is
  93. the primary photosynthetic organisms are _______ and _______.
    green plant; algae
  94. the two phases of photosynthesis:
    light and dark phase
  95. the second phase of photosynthesis produces:
  96. the nitrogen containing base that is found only in RNA:
  97. tha molecule that delivers amino acids to the ribosomes is:
  98. Each m-RNA codes for an:
    amino acid
  99. The DNA code is carried from the nucleus to the ribosome by the
  100. the destuctive phase of metabolism is
  101. Sections of a chromosome that code for a trait are called:
  102. your diploid chromosome number is
  103. when two haploid gametes unite, they form a diploid cell called a
  104. An Austian monk who established the first laws and principles of heredity was:
  105. possessing a pair of identical alleles for one trait is the:
    homozygous condition
  106. if an organism has 2 differentalleles for a single trait, the organism is said to be:
  107. to visualize mendel's theories, a geographical representaion is used called a
    punnettt square
  108. a trait carried only on the X chromosome is
  109. the principle of genetics involved when one gene in a pair masks or prevents the expression of the other is called the principle of ________ and _____
    dominant and recessive
  110. a condition in which both the alleles of a heterozygous condition are expressed
    incomplete dominance
  111. autosomes are chromosomes that are not
    sex chromosomes
  112. name the phases of mitosis
    • interphase
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
  113. the triplet of bases is called
  114. the branch of biology that deals with the classification of organisms into groups
  115. binomial nomenclature:
    the method of two-name naming
  116. the main form of reproduction for most bacteria
    binary fission
  117. when conditions becomes unfavorable for life, some bacteria form:
  118. natural genetic transferin bacteria
  119. the individual who developed smallpox vaccine
  120. bacteria that use non-living organic matter for food are
  121. in order for bacteria to grow, conditions must be in proper range
    • pH
    • moisture
    • temperature
    • nutrition
  122. compare and contrast archaebacteria and eubacteria
    • both are prokaryotic, unicellular, heterotrophic, and reproduce sexually
    • Archaebacteria live in extreme enviornments and Eubacteria contain peptidoglychen in their cell wall
  123. Simple viruse contain a core of
    nucleic acid
  124. viruses destroy the cell they invade
    lytic cycle
  125. the time between contracting a disease and the appearance of the first symptoms
    incubation period
  126. viroids:
    short single strands of circular RNA
  127. prions:
    abnormal form of protein normally found in cells that is thought to cause certain diseases
  128. Most protozoans are classified into phyla based on their
  129. algae in the kingdom protista are classified into 5 phyla based primarily on their
  130. taxis:
    response to a stimuli
  131. paramecium move by
  132. primary method by which the euglena obtain its food is
  133. dinoflagelletes are responsible for
    red tide
  134. algal bloom:
    overgrowth of algae
  135. long chain of algal cells
  136. thallus:
    basic unit of algae
  137. secreting enzymes outside of the organism and then absorbing the digested food is
    external digestion
  138. the cell walls of most fungi are composed of
  139. hyphae:
    the bodies of most true fungi are composed of slender filaments
  140. the entire mass of interwined hyphae formed by a fungus
  141. athlete's foot fungus belongs in phylum
  142. the imperfect fungi are unique because they have no known
    form of sexual reproduction
  143. the hyphae that produce spores
  144. on the gills of the mushroom basidia produce
  145. the stalk of a mushroom
  146. symbiosis:
    a relationship in whic two organisms benefit from one another
  147. Lichens:
    algae and fungi living in a symbiotic relationship
  148. An organism that is permenantly attached to the ground is
  149. organisms with systems of tough plates protecting them have an
  150. ventral side:
    bottom half; belly
  151. dorsal side:
    top half; back
  152. caudal region:
    tail area
  153. bilateral symmetry:
    cuts top to bottom; cuts organism into equal halves
  154. a jelly-like layer found in sponges is the
  155. cells that help digest food are
  156. platy-
  157. muscular throat cavity:
  158. an organism that possesses both male and female reproductive organs
  159. hookwork:
    parasitic roundworm
  160. the earthworm respires through
  161. ganglion:
    nerve tissue
  162. the shell of a mollusk:
  163. starfish uses _____________- for locomotion and capturing food
    water vascular system
  164. the external skeleton of arthropods:
  165. the cephalothorax of the crayfish is protected by
  166. a sac that helps the crayfish keeps its balance
  167. the crayfish has an ________ ciculatory system
  168. how do crayfish breathe?
  169. where are the swimmerets located and what is their function?
    ventral abdomen; swimming, cleaning off parasites, carrying eggs
  170. axial skeleton:
    • skull
    • vertebrae
    • ribs
  171. fish of the class osteichthyyes are
    bony fish
  172. air bladder:
    controls depth on bony fish
  173. countershading:
    form of camoflage; protection
  174. spawning:
    when female fish release eggs
  175. organisms that produce live offspring that have been nurtured to birth through a placenta are
  176. fish have a sensory organ that detect vibrations in the water
    lateral line
  177. the fin used to propel the animal through the water is called the
    caudel fin
  178. name 3 characteristics that place animals into phylum chordata
    • dorsal notochord
    • dorsal tubular chord
    • pharyngeal pouches
  179. mammals teeth used for cutting and gnawing
  180. muscle that separates the lungs frokm the abdominal organs
  181. oxygen and nutrients are exchanged b/w the mother and embryoin most mammals through the
  182. female reproductive structure that contains the unborn mammal
  183. organ that produces milk for feeding the young
    mammary glands
  184. mammalian order marsupialia in North America is represented by
  185. animals that chew the cud are
  186. bacteria in the rumen help digest
  187. characteristics that separate the class mammalia from other vertebrae classes
    • breathe air
    • endothermic
    • four-chambered heart
    • specialized teeth
    • produce milk for young
    • have hair
  188. 2 ungulate orders
    • perissodatyla- odd-toed
    • artiodactyla- even-toed
  189. what characteristic separates the 2 ungulate orders?
    # of toes
  190. which order is considered clean according to Jewish dietary law?
    even-toed; they have rumens
  191. why is the pig considered unclean?
    it doesnt chew the cud