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Normally, when a person breathes their jugular vein collapses with each breath. However, if it doesn't, it is a sign that the pericardium is constricted, which points to pericaditis. One example that this is seen in is TB. What is this sign called?
1 in 4 patients have a DVT at the same time as what other abnormal symptom?
Which type of DVT has more problems associated with it, proximal or distal?
If a patient has a high risk for DVT, we should begin ___________ without delay.
What is a good rule-out test for DVT? What is a good second test?
- Fibrin D-Dimer
- Compression US
In the clinical model for predicting pretest probability for deep-vein thrombosis, what score is associated with a low risk? Moderate risk? And high risk?
- Low: 0
- Moderate: 1-2
- High: >3
What is the case fatality of recurrent VTE after initial PE? After initial DVT?
What is the most common cause of leg ulcers?
Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI)
What two things can cause chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)?
- Chronic Valvular Incompetence
- Chronic Venous Obstruction
In what type of chronic venous insufficiency are the superficial venins not working correctly? This is associated with good results.
In what type of chronic venous insufficiency are the perforating or deep veins destroyed? This is harder to treat, and associated with poorer results.
In deep venous insufficiency, what is the obstruction commonly due to?
DVT (post-thrombotic syndrome)
In deep venous insufficiency, stretching of facial planes and inhibitions of capillary inflow results in what?
This non-thrombotic obstruction is associated with vein wall abnormalities. This is a triad, with varicose veins, port wine stains, and excess growth of bones and soft tissues. This is a congenital syndrome, and is associated with lots of edema.
What is the primary treatment for venous insufficiencies?
Reduction of Edema: compression therapy
What does obstruction of lymph nodes cause? In this, there is overproduction of lymphatic fluid, and the production is greater than the transport of protein-rich interstitial fluid. There is a loss of lymphatic fluid transport, and impaired removal of lymphatic fluid from the interstitium. This results in swelling.
What is the most common subtype of lymphedema?
Secondary: acquired destruction of lymphatic channels
What type of lymphedema is an inherited defect in lymphatic development and function? What genetic abnormality is this associated with?
- Primary Lymphedema
What are the three types of Primary Lymphedema? Which attacks in the teens and twenties? Which is seen after the age of 35?
- Lymphedema Praecox: teens/twenties
- Lymphedema Tarda: after age 35
What is a very typical sign of secondary lymphedema?
What is the most commonly used diagnostic test for lymphedema?
What phenomenon is characterized by bilateral leg swelling, with no swelling in the feet?
Which disease, Venous, Lymphatic, or Lipedema, is bilateral?
- Venous: +/-
- Lymphatic: +/-
- Lipedema: +++
Which disease, Venous, Lymphatic, or Lipedema, is stasis seen in?
Which disease, Venous, Lymphatic, or Lipedema, is thick skin seen in?
Which disease, Venous, Lymphatic, or Lipedema, is the foot involved in?
Venous and Lymphatic
Which disease, Venous, Lymphatic, or Lipedema, are the toes involved in?
What are the urgent presentations associated with edema?
- Acute Arterial Ischemia -- 5 Ps
- Wet/dry Gangrene
What are the five Ps associated with Acute Limb Ischemia?
- Pallor, Pain
What other syndrome can cause swelling?
What is a normal ABI?
0.90 - 1.30
What is a mild ABI?
0.70 - 0.89
What is a moderate ABI?
0.40 - 0.69
What is a severe ABI?
Less than or equal to 0.40
What ABI is associated with non-compressible vessels?