Nutrition

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Nutrition
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2011-05-30 07:56:14
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Nutrition
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  1. Health Literacy
    • is the ability to undestand basic health concepts and apply to one's own health decisions
    • -Formal...school
    • -Nonformal EDU...hospitals, clinicls
    • -Informal EDU...experiences thru daily activities
  2. Health
    • is the merging and balancing of 5 physical and psychologic dimensions of health:
    • physical, intellectual, emotional, social, and spiritual
  3. Nutrition
    is the study of essential nutrients and the processes by which nutrients are used by the body
  4. Health Promotion
    • consists of strategies used to increase the level of health of individuals, families, groups and communities
    • -National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
    • -National Food Consumption Surveys (NFCS)
  5. Healthy People 2020
    based on the vision "a society in which all people live long, healthy lives." The mission is "to improve health through strengthening policy and practice."

    prioritiesfor change based on determinants of health such as living and working conditions, as well as individual behaviors as affected by age, sex, race, biological factors
  6. Wellness
    is a lifestyle that enhances our level of health
  7. disease prevention
    • is the recognition of a danger to through specific actions or changes in lifestyle behavior
    • -Primary, secondary, and teriary prevention
    • -Role of nutrition
  8. Six nutrient categories include
    • Carbohydrates (CHO)
    • Proteins
    • Lipids (fats)
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
  9. Funtions of Essential Nutrients in the Body
    • Providing energy
    • Regulating body processes
    • Aiding growth and repair of body tissues
  10. Food, Energy, and Nurtients
    • Organic nutrients composed of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon
    • CHO, proteins, and lipids
    • Energy-yeilding nutrients are organic
    • Carbs, proteins, and lipids
    • Energy released from food measured in kilocalories (kcal, thousands of calories) or calories
  11. Kcal Values
    Nutrients Kcal Value per Gram

    • Carbohydrates 4
    • Proteins 4
    • Lipids (fats) 9
    • Alcohol 7
  12. Carbohydrates
    • -major source of energy and dietary fiber
    • -simple carbs..fruit, milk, & sweeteners
    • -Complex carbs..cereals,grains, fruits,veg
    • -all except dietary fiber broken down to units of glucose
    • -glucose most efficient form of energy for body
  13. Proteins
    • -Provide energy and perform extendsive functions in body
    • -Composed of 20 amino acids
    • -9 essential amino acids..animal and plant source
    • -Consumption of lipids and risk reduction for diet-related diseases
  14. vitamins
    • -compounds that indirectly assist other nutrients through processes of digestion, absorption, metabolism, and excretion
    • -13 vitamins, each with specific function
    • -Fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins
    • -Found in many foods, especially fruits and vegetables
  15. Lipids (fats)
    Provide densest form of energy and other functions in the body and in foods

    3 categories of lipids; triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols

    Consumption of lipids and risk reduction for diet-related diseases
  16. Fat-soluble vitamins
    A, D, E and K

    are found in food lipids
  17. water-soluble vitamins
    B vitamins and vitamin C
  18. Minerals
    • -serve structural purposes in body and found in body fluids
    • -16 essential minerals divided into major and trace minerals
    • -found in fruits, vegetables, dairy, meats, and legumes
  19. Water
    • Functions as major part of every tissue in body
    • -fluid within which substances can break down and reform
    • -as blood constituent, provides transportation for nutrients
    • -Consume equivalent of 9 to 13 cups water a day from foods and beverages
  20. Dietary Standards
    are a guide to adequate nutrients intake levels against which to compare nutient values of foods consumed
  21. Dietary Reference Intakes
    (DRIs)
    • -Based on:
    • -reviewing available scientific data
    • -assessing nutrient function to reduce risk of chronic and other diseases
    • -evaluation nutrient consumption levels among U.S. and Canadian populations
    • -Apply to various individuals and population groups
  22. Dietary Reference Intakes Lingo
    • -Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
    • -Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
    • -Adequate Intake (AI)
    • -Tolerable Upper Intake level(UL)
    • -Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
  23. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
    is the amount of a nutrient needed to meet the basic requirements of half the individuals in a specific group that represents the needs of a population.
  24. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
    is the level of nutrient intake sufficient to meet the needs of almost all healthy individuals of a life-stage and gender group.
  25. Adequate Intake (AI)
    is the approximate level of an average nutrient intake determined by observation of or experimentation with a particular group or population that appears to maintain good health
  26. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
    is the level of nutrient intake that should not be exceeded to prevent adverse health risks.
  27. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs)
    are daily percent energy intake values for the macronutrients of fat, carbs, and protein.

    • 45-65% carbs
    • 20-35% fat
    • 10-35% protein
  28. Use of dietary reference intakes
    • -Planning for lg groups...millitary
    • -Creating dietary standards for food assistance programs
    • -interpreting food consumption information on individuals and populations
    • -developing new food products..imitation products
  29. addtional Standards
    -Estimated Energy Requirements (EER)

    -Standards of international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO)
  30. Adequate Eating Patterns
    Assortment

    Balance

    Nutrient density
  31. Nutritional Assessment
    -Nutritional assessment determines nutritional status

    -Assessment techniques

    • -Assessment of dietary intake
    • -Undernutrition
    • -Overnutrition
    • -Malnutrition
  32. Diet Evaluation
    • ways to gather food data include:
    • - 24-hour recall
    • - Usual food intake
    • -a food record
    • - a food frequencey checklist
    • - diet history

    Computer dietary data analysis compared to DRIs
  33. Assessment of Nutritional Status
    • -Dietary evaluation
    • -clinical examination - Doctor, Nurse, Dietitian
    • -Biochemical analysis - samples of body tissue, blood and urine tests
    • -Anthropometric measurments - measuring height, weight and limb circumference
  34. Nutrition Specialist
    • Nutrition therapy
    • -provided by:
    • -Registered dietitian (RD)
    • -Nutritionalist
    • -in 43 states dietitian/nutritionalist is a legally defined and licenced or certified title
  35. Toward a positive nutrition lifestyle
    • -Self-efficacy is the perceptionof one's ability to have power over our lives and behaviors
    • -positive self-efficacy
    • -negative self-efficacy
  36. exchange lists for Meal Planning
    lists: Carbs, (CHO), meat, and meat substitutes, and fats

    CHO is subdivided into starch, fruit, milk, other CHO and vegetables

    Encourages variety and helps control Kcal and grams of CHO, protein, and fats

    Adjust to individual metabolic nutrition and lifestyle requirements
  37. Effective Food-buying styles
    • Food budget
    • Consumer diversity
    • Dietary preferences
    • shopping frequencey
    • location and types of food stores
  38. Nutritions Facts panel must list per serving:
    • energy (kcal)
    • fat
    • total food energy
    • food energy from fat
    • total fat
    • saturated fat, including trans fat
    • cholesterol
    • sodium
    • total carbs
    • dietary fiber
    • sugars
    • proteins
    • vitamins A and C
    • Calcium
    • iron
    • Daily values (DVs)
    • -to make conparisions between products
    • -to assess nutrient content claims
    • -choose a mix of foods that balance intake
    • -Uniform definitios for food descriptors, ex: light, low fat, etc
    • -Organic Food Standards and labels
  39. Food Preservation
    • Drying and dehydrating
    • Canning
    • Refridgeration and freezing]
    • Pasteurizing
    • Curing and smoking
    • Modified atmosphere packaging
    • Irradiating
  40. Organs of the Digestive tract
    • Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
    • Digestive system
    • Digestion

    • Processes completed by digestive system
    • - chemical and mechanical digestion
  41. The mouth
    Salivary glands - secretes saliva

    Teeth and tongue - formation, movement of bolus
  42. The Esophagus
    • a muscuar tube through which bolus travels from mouth to stomach
    • - peristalsis
    • - segmentation
    • - cardiac sphincter
  43. The Stomach
    • Consists of fundus, body, and pylorus
    • Gastric secretions
    • Gastric motility
    • -chyme formation
    • Functions of stomach
    • Pyloric sphincter
  44. The small intestines
    • Consists of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
    • -passage through takes about 5 hours

    • Major organ of digestion and most absorption
    • -villi and microvilli
  45. Function of Hormones
    • Secretions from small intestines, liver, and pancreas include:
    • -secretin
    • -bile
    • -cholecystorkinin (CCK)
    • Function of ileocecal valve (sphincter)
  46. The Large Intestine
    • -Consists of cecum, colon, and rectum
    • -Passage through takes about 9-16hrs
    • -Site of final absorption of water and some minerals
    • -Bacteria in colon produce several vitamins
    • -Formation of feces and excretion from colon through anus (sphincter)
  47. Absorption
    Process by which substances pass through the intestinal mucosa into the blood or lymph

    • Transport processes
    • - passive diffusion and osmosis
    • -facilitated diffusion
    • -energy-dependent active transport
    • -engulfing pinocytosis
  48. Factors affecting absorption of nutrients
    Bioavailability

    Relationship between foods and drug absorption
  49. Nutrient transport system
    • General circulatory (blood) system
    • Lymphatic system
    • Liver
  50. Elimination
    Expulstion of feces or body wasted products called defecation

    • Reidue may include:
    • - Undigested materials...cellulose and other dietary fibers
    • -undigested fats may combine with dietary minerals such as calcium and magnesium to form residue
    • - additional residue may include, water, bacteria, pigments, and mucus
  51. Digestive process across the life span
    • -immature GI tract of infants
    • -Allergies
    • -middle years include gallbladder disease and peptic ulcers
    • -age-related lactose intolerance
    • -Older years associated with constipation and diverticulosis
  52. Metabolism
    • Sef of processes through which absorbed nutrients are used by body for energy and to form and maintain body structures and functions
    • -Catabolism
    • - Anabolism
  53. Functions of nutrients
    • -Form new cell structures
    • -Create new substances such as hormones and enzymes
    • -Assist in use of other nutrients in cell
    • -Act as catalysts or coenzymes in transforming and using of carbs, proteins, and lipids
    • -Provides energy
  54. Metabolism waste products
    excreted through lungs, kidneys, or large intestines
  55. Metabolism across the life span
    lowered metabolic rates
  56. Heartburn Symptoms
    • burning sensation
    • asthma
    • chronic cough
    • ear, nose and throat ailments

    aka GER Gastroesophageal reflux
  57. Vomiting
    is reverse peristalsis
  58. Simple Carbohydrates
    All carbs are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the form of simple carbohydrates or sugars
  59. Monosaccharides
    are composed of a single carbohydrate unit.

    Glucose, fructose, and galactose
  60. Disaccharides
    2 single carbohydrates bound together.


    Sucrose, maltose, lactose
  61. Polysaccharides
    many units of monosaccharides joined together


    starch and fiber are food sources

    glycogen is a storage form in the liver and muscles
  62. Complex Carbohydrates
    Polysaccharides held together by different kinds of chemical bonds that affect the bodies ability to digest

    starch, fiber
  63. Function of Carbohydrates
    • Provides energy
    • Dietary fiber
    • naturally occuring sweetners (sucrose/Fructose)
    • Brain and nerve tissues require CHO (glucose) as fuel
    • Protein-sparing effect
  64. Digestion
    • begins in mouth
    • breakdown to monosaccharides
    • -mechanical digestion
    • -chemical digestion function of enzymes
    • -lactose intolerance
  65. Absorption
    -active transport process of glucose

    -liver conversion of fructose and galactose to glucose
  66. Glycogen
    storage form of CHO in liver and muscles
  67. Glycogenesis
    process of converting glucose to glycogen
  68. -effects of training on glycogen storage
    -limited energy souce
  69. Metabolism
    • -Blood glucose source of energy to all cells
    • -primary maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis at 70 to 100 mg/dL
    • -Conversion t and from glucose
    • - glycogenolysis
    • - gluconegenesis
    • - ketones
  70. Blood Glucose Regulation
    Hormonal system controls glucose metabolism and blood glucose level regulation

    • -insulin: Pancreatic hormone regulates BG uptake
    • -Glucagon: pancreatic hormone releases glycogen from liver
    • -somatostatin: pancreatic and hypothalamus hormone inhibits insulin and glucagons
    • -Hormones from adrenal, pituitary, thyroid
  71. Glycemic Index
    level to which food raises blood glucose levels compared with reference food; ranking of 100 highest
  72. Disaccharides
    sucrose: glucose + Fructose

    Maltose: glucose + glucose

    Lactose: glucose + galactose
  73. Sugar alcohols
    sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol
  74. Alternative sweeteners (artificial sweeteners)
    • aspartame
    • saccharin
    • acesulfame K
    • sucralose
  75. insoluble

    soluble
    cannot breakdown...celery, corn

    can breakdown...apples

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