Card Set Information
Pyelonephritis may be distinguished from cystitis by the presence of ________ & _______ in pyelonephritis
urinary casts and flank pain
What indicates the early stage of renal failure?
very low GFR nd increased serum urea
Why is cystitis more common in females?
urethra is short
Urine that is cloudy may indicate the presence of what?
protein and bacteria
Urethritis is an upper UTI
Urinary cast reveal what kind of infection?
A representative form of glomerulonephritis is _________.
Glomerulonephritis usually begins as what infections?
upper respiratory infection, middle ear, or strep throat
Proteinuria and hematuria produce ______, _______, ___________ urine.
dark, cloudy, coffee-colored
What is urolithias?
kindey stones (calculi)
Where does CSF circulate around the brain and spinal cord?
Whay is a major cause of cerebral palsy?
Which of the following is NOT criteria for brain death....No activity on EEG, no reflex, no respirations, head injury
Which is not a type of aphasia? Receptive, local, global, expressive
Bruising of brain tissue with rupture of small blood vessels and edema is known as a _______
Debris or solid material in the urinary tract forms what?
nidus- upon which a kidney stones begins to form
75% of calculi are __________ and the rest are __________.
calcium salts, uric acid
What is the treatment of Urolithiasis called?
Large calculi are called what?
Clear and sraw-colored is the condiion of what kind of urine?
Cloudy urine indicates what?
protein, cells, bacteria, pus
Dark urine indicates what?
hematuria, billirubin, high concentrate
Odor in urine indicates what?
Pyelonephritis is what kind of UTI?
Cystitis and urethritis are what kind of UTI?
What is the most causitive agent of a UTI?
Most infections are from microbes that _______ from the _______ area
Excessive insoluble salts and inadequate fluid intake can cause
Acute renal failure occurs _______ and is usually _______.
suddenly , reversible
What is used to replace kidney function?
Urinalysis revealing bacteria, pyuria, hematuria indicates what?
What is the result of not resolving underlying causes of renal failure?
Tubule obstruction, decreasesblood flow, or inflammation are causes of what?
acute renal failure
Hyperkalmia is a major symptom of what?
acute renal failure
Kidneys have a _______ _______, as a result renal failure is asymptomatic
Late signs (end stage) of chronic renal failure are:
pruritis, CHF, uremic frost, failure to activate vitamin D
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is more common in _____.
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease occurs mostly in _______.
60% of nephron loss in renal failure is what stage?
decreased renal reserve
70% nephron oss equals what stage of renal failure?`
90% nephron loss equals what stage of renal failure?
end stage renal failure
Acute renal failure is ________, while chronic renal failure is ________.
Thin, web-like mebrane located between dur matter and pi matter
space between arachnoid matter and pi matter
sub archnoid space
space below dura matter
space between dura and arachnoid matter
space between dura matter nd peristeum of skull
Clear fluid that circulates around brain nd spinal cord-
CSF-cerebral spinal fluid
CSF is formed where?
choroid plexuses in ventricles
What is the function of CSF?
cushion for brain and spinal cord
Loss of logical thinking, analytical skills, communication skills, and other intellectual skills are controlled by
Behavior, spatial orientation, relationships, mobility and appreciation for art and music re controlled by
Most serious level of consciousness is
N response to painful or verbal stimuli, some relfexes, and flaccid body equals what?
Loss o all reflexes, fixed/dialated pupils, slow/irregular pulse and respirations equals
terminal stage deep coma
Loss of awareness and mentl capabilities-brain stem function continues equals
Unresponsive to stimuli and appear to sleep/wake (open/close eyes)
Capable of thinking but paralyzed and can not communicate
Name the criteria for brain death
cessation fo brain function-absense of brain stem reflexes or responses-absense of spontaneous respiration w/o respirator- certain of irreversible brain damage
Damage to right eye or right optic nerve results in
right eye blindness
Damage to lower motor neurons in the anterior horn of spinal cord causes
flaccid muscles, absent reflexes, paralysis on same side at or below site of injury
Damage to upper motor neuronsin cerebrl cortex or coricospinal tracts causes
weakness/paralysis on opposite side f injury, increase muscle tone and reflexes
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) serves as a warning to
CVAs (cardiovascualr accidents)
Destruction of optic chiasm results in
vision loss in both eyes
Damage to right occipital lobe or right optic tract results in
vision loss on left side
Eyes have sunset sign, enlarged head, unclosed sutures, lethargic, high-pitched,shrill cry
Posterior spinous process on vertebrae does not close
Herniation of spinal cord and meninges does NOT occur
spina bifida occulta
Herniation of meninges occurs hrough a defect, no nerve issue in herniated sac
spina bifida meningocele
Herniationof spinal cord and nerves along with meninges and CFS
spina bifida myelomeningocele
Non-progressive, 1-2 per 1000 births, 500,000 cases in the U.S., damage may occur before, during or shortly after birth
Hypoxia or ischemia is the major cause of brain damage in
Area of damage for spastic cerebral palsy (CP)
motor cortex or pyramidal tracts
Area of damage for dyskinetic disease
basal nuclei or extrapyramidal tracts
Area of damage for ataxia CP
Reduction in dopamine, muscle weakness, pill-rolling motion, shuffling steps, dysfunction of extrapyramidal motor system
Common form of dimentia, progressive loss of intellectual function, cognitive function declines
Multiple origins in deep structures of cerebral hemispheres and brainstem-causes loss of consciousness
single origin in cerebral cortex, may or may not involve loss of consciousnes
breif loss of awareness, momentarily stares into space, lasts 5-10 seconds, lip smacking, most common in children
absence (petit mal) seizure
prodromal signs, aura, loss f consciousness, strong tonic muscle contraction, clonic stage, contractions subside, person confused and fatigued
pattern for tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizure
progrssive de-myelination of neurons in the brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves
multiple sclerosis (MS)
blurred vision, scotoma, weakness in legs
(MS) multiple sclerosis
result of mild blow to the head, sudden excessive movement to the brain leading to loss of consciousness
bruising of brain tissue wth rupture of small blood vessels and edema
brain tissue is injured and blood vessels may be ruptured but skull is not fractured
closed head injury
fractures and penetrationof the brain by missiles or sharp objects
open head injury
simple cracks in bone
several fracture lines, but may notbe complicated
involves trauma in which brain tissue is exposed to the environment, likely brain damage, high risk of infection
displacment of a piece of bone below level of skull, compressed brain tissue, impaired blood supply, considerable pressure
depressed skull fractures
occurs at base of skull, may have leakibng CSF thru ears or nose, raccoon sign
skull and brain hit a solid object which causes brain to rebound against the opposite side of the skull, usually only minor brain damage
receptive (sensory) aphasia effects ability to understand written or spoken language-what is the site of damage?
broca's area, left frontal lobe
expressive (motor) aphasia effecs the ability to speak or write fluently or appropriately--what is the site of damage?
wernicke's area, left temporal lobe, prefrontal
global aphasia effects the ability to express oneself or comprehend other's language--what is the site of damage?
broca's and wernicke's areas and communication fibers
intellectual function and personality is controlled by what area of the frontal lobe?
skilled movement is controlled by what area of the frontal lobe?
voluntary movements are controlled by what area of the frontal lobe?
speech (expression) is cntrolled by what area of the frontal lobe?
sensation (touch, pain) is controlled by what area of the parietal lobe?
hearing is controlled by what area of the temporal lobe?
vision is controlled by what area of the occipital lobe?
smell is controlled by what area of the temporal lobe?
comprehension of speech and memory is controlled by what are of the temporal lobe?
body balance and position, coordinated movement are controlled by
control/coordination centers for respiration, cardiovascular (vasomotor) swallowing, vomiting,cough reflex are controlled by what
ANS,link wih endocrine system, body temp and fluid balance, and the center for thirst control
sensory sorting and relay center is controlled by what?
coordination and control of body movementis controlled by what?
arousal and awareness is controlled by what?
reticular actiating system
emotional responses are controlled by what?
sympathetic and parasympatheic response to stimuli of heart blood vessels=
s-increase rate and force of contractions, p-decreases rate and contractility
parasympathetic and sympathetic response to stimulation of male genitalia=
sympathetic and parasympatheitc response to stimuli of sphincters of the bladder=
s- consriction p- relaxes
sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation of digestive secretions and peristalsis=
s- decreased p-increases
sympathetic response of stimuli of sweat glands=
sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation of the eye=
p- pupil constriction s-pupil dilation
sympathetic and parasympathetic stimuli of the respiratory system =
s- bronchodilation p-bronchoconstriction
sympathetic and parasympathetic response of stimuli of skin, mucosa, viscrera=
s-vasoconstriction p-no innervation
sympathetic and parasympathetic response to stimuli of skeletal muscle=
s-vasodilation p-no innervation
sympathetic and parasympathetic response to stimuli o adrenal medulla=
s-secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine p- no innervation