Bioconcepts Cancer

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Anonymous
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Bioconcepts Cancer
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2011-05-30 19:05:45
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Bioconcepts Cancer
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cancer questions
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  1. cancers of glandular epithelial cells
    adenocarcinoma
  2. a dominant tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 5. Mutations of APC are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis or FAP
    adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)
  3. loss of normal shape and organization of cells and tissues associated with malignant transformation
    Anaplasia
  4. reduction in the number of red blood cells, often causing fatigue
    Anemia
  5. loss of appetite
    Anorexia
  6. non-cancerous
    Benign
  7. non-cancerous tumors
    benign tumors
  8. an imbalance of the cellular components of the blood
    blood dyscrasias
  9. a dominant tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 17 that repairs damaged DNA. BRCA-1 mutations are found in about 7% of women with a history of breast cancer
    BRCA1
  10. a dominant tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 13 that repairs damaged DNA. BRCA-1 and 2 mutations are responsible for about 5-10% of all breast cancers
    BRCA-2
  11. general physical wasting and malnutrition associated with chronic disease
    Cachexia
  12. any neoplasm that demonstrates uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells and is associated with invasive spread and metastasis
    Cancer
  13. cancers of squamous epithelial cells
    Carcinoma
  14. the earliest stage in development of carcinomas when cancer cells have not spread beyond their immediate site of origin, as when epithelial cells have not yet invaded through the basement membrane of their extracellular cell matrix
    carcinoma in situ (cis)
  15. genes that produce the proteins that repair damaged DNA
    caretaker genes
  16. any of at least 50 different genes in the human genome such as ras that are expressed during the cell growth cycle. Cancer of a cell is usually the result of multiple mutations in c-onc genes.
    cellular proto-oncogenes (c-onc)
  17. the process of anatomic and functional maturation demonstrated by normal cells and tissues. Progressively more undifferentiated malignancies are more primitive, under less genetic regulatory control, and are more aggressive
    differentiation
  18. the pre-invasive stage of breast duct cell cancer
    ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
  19. abnormally appearing cells usually of squamous epithelium considered to be a pre-malignant change
    Dysplasia
  20. red blood cells
    Erythrocytes
  21. a familial form of colon cancer caused by mutations of the APC gene, characterized by development of thousands of polyps of the colon resulting in colon cancer before the third or fourth decade of life
    familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
  22. the customary method of describing prognosis as the percent likelihood that an individual with a cancer of a specific stage and grade will be alive in five years
    five-year survival
  23. colon cancer associated with mutations of any of five different genes on chromosomes 2, 3, and 7 that comprise 5-15 % of all cases of colon cancer
    hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) ("Lynch syndrome")
  24. DNA repair accomplished by certain caretaker genes by copying the correct (non-mutated) nucleotide(s) from another homologous strand, either on the other chromosome, a sister chromatid, or homologous repeat sequences on the same chromosome
    homologous replication
  25. a mutated dominant gene on chromosome 1 associated with familial prostate cancer that increases the risk of developing cancer before 55 years of age
    HPC1
  26. increased proliferation of cells with normal appearance in tissue often involving glandular epithelium and considered a pre-malignant change
    Hyperplasia
  27. reduction in the number of white blood cells that may cause decreased immune responsiveness, including reduced resistance to infection
    Leucopenia
  28. cancer of the white blood cells that may be chronic or acute and is named for the type of white blood cell most prominently involved
    Leukemia
  29. cancer of the lymphoid tissue
    Lymphoma
  30. cancer
    Malignancy
  31. cancerous tumors
    malignant tumors
  32. malignancy of the pleura, or fibrous covering of the lung, constituting about 5% of all forms of lung cancer
    mesothelioma
  33. transfer of any disease causing agent from one part of the body to another associated with the development of the same pathologic changes in the new location
    Metastasis
  34. the number of cells within a microscopic field that are undergoing mitosis; a high mitotic index is associated with more rapid cell proliferation and, usually a more virulent malignancy
    mitotic index
  35. a new growth of tissue that serves no physiologic purpose; a tumor
    Neoplasm
  36. genes that are uncontrollably activated by mutations or loss of control by regulator genes, leading to malignant transformation
    Oncogenes
  37. the induction or formation of tumors
    Oncogenesis
  38. the medical discipline that studies and treats various forms of cancer
    Oncology
  39. a gene on chromosome 17 that produces a protein that suppresses cell division and/or induces cellular apoptosis. Mutations of p53 are associated with 60% of lung cancers and more rapid progression of cancers of bladder, brain, breast, cervix, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, lung, and bone
    p53
  40. the connective tissue covering of the lung
    Pleura
  41. an enzyme secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland that is used as a screening test for prostate cancer
    prostate specific antigen (PSA)
  42. a gene on chromosome 11 that produces a signaling enzyme that activates other genes initiating mitosis. Mutations in ras irreversibly switch on mitosis. Ras mutations are present in 30% of cancers and are associated with cancers of the colon, lung, and pancreas
    Ras
  43. cancers of cells of mesodermal origin such as muscle or bone
    Sarcoma
  44. a drug that modulates estrogen receptors used to treat estrogen receptor-positive cancers
    Tamoxifen
  45. reduction in the number of thrombocytes or platelets associated with uncontrolled bleeding due to impaired coagulation of blood
    thrombocytopenia
  46. a clinical system to classify the degree of anaplasia of a cancer. Higher grades mean that the cancer is more undifferentiated and this is associated with higher virulence and a poorer prognosis
    tumor grade
  47. a cytokine produced by monocytes and macrophages that mediates a variety of inflammatory responses including activation of IL-1, initiation of apoptosis, and some forms of tumor cell destruction. TNF-α is also associated with cachexia.
    tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)
  48. a clinical system to classify the extent of cancer spread. Higher stages mean more extensive spread and are associated with a poorer prognosis
    tumor stage

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