Spring Pre Ap World History Review Pt. 2

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  1. •Otto von Bismarck
    was the most influential in helping Germany to unify. William I and William II were ruling as Bismarck was unifying. William I supported Bismarck, but William II ended up forcing him toresign.
  2. Danish War:
    Increased German nationalism
  3. •Seven Weeks War:
    Established dominance over Austria = Prussia leads German unification & Creates NorthGerman Confederation led by Prussia
  4. •Franco-Prussian War:
    Prussia gained Alsace-Lorraine from France. & Gained lots of money. Also - Kaiser = Emperor of Germany – 2nd Reich, Germany unified with Bismarck = Chancellor
  5. •What was Italy like pre-1850? How did Count Cavour & Sardinia change the face of
    Italy/start unification? How did Garibaldi?
    What was their negotiation?
    • –Pre 1850: Series of divided nation-states: Growth of Nationalism, Congress of
    • Vienna ignored nationalist ideas, Hapsburgs (Austria) controlled n.
    • Italy – nationalists wanted them out!, Development of nationalist groups
    • Garibaldi– wanted a united Italy (shared common language & history – end trade barriers)
  6. Realpolitik
    realistic assessment of power (often ruthless & violent)
  7. Industrial Revolution When? Where? Why?
    Started in Great Britain – more COAL, more PEOPLE, STABLE government, Money, etc
  8. Enclosures:
    lands that used to be for everyone closed off for the rich – can experimenthere
  9. Jethro Tull:
    Invents the seed drill
  10. James Watt:
    Improved the steam engine
  11. Abraham Darby:
    Smelted iron
  12. Richard Arkwright:
  13. Fulton:
    Steam powered ship
  14. Robert Koch:
    identified the bacteria that causes tuberculosis
  15. Florence Nightingale:
    trained nurses and insisted on hygiene in hospitals
  16. George Haussmann:
    proponent of urban renewal inParis
  17. Louis Pasteur:
    discovered how antiseptics stopped infection
  18. Thomas Malthus:
    Said population will outgrow food
  19. Laissez-faire/Capitalism:
    government should leave businesses alone; the market will govern itself
  20. Utilitarianism:
    founded by Jeremy Bentham; wanted the government to intervene and do the most amount of good for the most amount of people
  21. Socialism:
    peopleas a whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the means of production
  22. Communism/Marxism:
    theorized by Karl Marx; he believed that history was a struggle between the “haves”and the “have-nots”and the have-nots or proletariats were going to rise up against the middle class (or bourgeoisie) in revolution and make a class-less society
  23. Imperialism:
    A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countriespolitically, economically, and socially
  24. Causes of Imperialism
    • Natural resources, expand markets, invest profits, industrial rev.
    • White Man’s Burden, Christianity, Social Darwinism
    • Advances in weapons, technology, communication, etc
  25. Negative and positive effects of Imperialism:
    • Positive: Railroads, dams, telephones, sanitation improved, economic expansion, more schools, more hospitals
    • Negative: European hostility, forced non-westerners to adopt western ways, hostility between imperialized and euro powers.
  26. Rudyard Kipling:
    Wrote the White Man’sBurden
  27. Ron Moham Roy:
    Father of Indian Nationalism
  28. Cecil Rhoades:
    British imperialist to Africa
  29. Commodore Matthew Perry:
    American naval officer who over took Japan
  30. Boer War:
    War b/w the Dutch and British for South Africa
  31. Berlin Conference:
    When European powers divided up Africa
  32. Sepoy Rebellion:
    Indian Muslim and Hindu troops rebelled against the British in India
  33. Opium War:
    War between the British and Chinese, British won
  34. Boxer Rebellion:
    Rebellion against the “foreign devils” in China
  35. Taiping Rebellion:
    Peasantrebellion in China against the dynasty
  36. Meiji Restoration:
    Feudalismin Japan abandoned; modernization, industrialization, and westernization ofJapan
  37. Long Term causes of WWI
    • M –militarism (countries trying to build up their militaries faster than theothers)
    • A –alliances (pulled all of the countries of Europe into the war)
    • I –imperialism (fought over the land in Africa and Asia)
    • N –nationalism (strong love of one’s country – also led to the short termcause!)
  38. Short term cause of WWI
    Assassination of Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo by the “Black Hand
  39. Triple Alliance
    Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Germany, Italy left, Ottoman Empire Joined
  40. Triple Entente
    Great Britain, France, and Russia, Italy, the US, and Japan joined
  41. Schlieffen Plan:
    German plan to invade France quickly and then invade Russia therefore avoiding a 2-front war; epic fail
  42. Sinking of the Lusitania:
    Germans sank a passenger ship; one of the things that brought the US into the war
  43. Zimmerman Note:
    Note between the Germans and the Mexicans promising Mexico US land if they helped Germany against the US, brought the US into the war
  44. Treaty of Versailles:
    • Ended the war officially, put ALL of the blame on Germany
    • Germany had to take the blame, pay reparations, lose some of their army, and lose territory
  45. New technology of WWI:
    trench warfare, poisonous gas, machine guns, tanks, airplanes, blimps, and submarines
  46. Big Three (at the Treaty of Versailles):
    Woodrow Wilson (US), David Lloyd George (Great Britain), and Georges Clemenceau (France)
  47. Nicholas II:
    last czar of Russia, abdication started Russian revolution
  48. Rasputin:
    “holyman”with lots of hold over the royal family
  49. Lenin:
    communist leader of Russian revolution
  50. Russian Civil War:
    between the Bolsheviks (reds – communists) and the Whites (non-communists);commies won
  51. Stalin:
    took control after Lenin; had the Great Purge (where he killed all his enemies) and the Five Year Plan(where he tried to industrialize Russia and instead had famine)
  52. Mao Zedong:
    leader of the Chinese communist party – ended up winning Chinese civil war
  53. Sun Yixian:
    started Nationalist party; overthrew last Chinese dynasty
  54. Jiang Jieshi:
    took over Nationalist party after Yixian; fought commies in Civil War
  55. May 4th Movement:
    Student protests after WWI protesting Western/Japanese in China
  56. Long March:
    Chinese communist run from the nationalists
  57. Great Leap Forward:
    Chinese developed communes, caused massive famine
  58. Cultural Revolution (China):
    Goal is to purge China of non-revolutionaries; red guard in charge; kill educated
  59. Deng Xiaoping:
    Took over after Mao’s death; more moderate leader; begins turning China’seconomy from command to free market
  60. Tiananmen Square:
    Students protest for more democracy; brutally squashed by Xiaoping and Chinese troops.
  61. Gandhi:
    leader of the Indian independence movement; proponent of civil disobedience (refusalto obey unjust laws); influenced Martin Luther King Jr. in the US
  62. Great Salt March
    organized by Gandhi; march to the sea to gather salt in protest of Britain’s unfair salt taxes
  63. Muhammad Ali Jinnah:
    founder of the Muslim league, wanted a separate country for Indian Muslims (got Pakistan)
  64. Great Depression:
    Worldwide recession that was the worst in Germany (who was still paying reparations from WWI); allowed the rise of fascist dictators
  65. League of Nations:
    Too weak to stop Japanese/Italian/German expansion
  66. Appeasement:
    Allowing an aggressor to expand in hopes that they will stop; ex: Germany in Austria and Czechoslovakia, Italy in Ethiopia and Japan in Manchuria
  67. Hitler:
    Fascist dictator who rose to power in Germany by negating the Treaty of Versailles
  68. Mussolini:
    Fascist dictator of Italy who began expansion into Ethiopia and E. Europe
  69. Hirohito:
    Militaristic leader of Japan who began Japanese expansion into Manchuria, Korea, China, and the Pacific
  70. Dunkirk:
    Allied troops evacuated out of France
  71. Battle of Britain:
    German bombing of Britain – fail
  72. Operation Barbarossa:
    German invasion of Russia – fail
  73. Battle of Stalingrad:
    Turning point of Euro. front
  74. D-day:
    Allied invasion of France
  75. Battle of the Bulge:
    Hitler’slast stand
  76. Pearl Harbor:
    brought US into war
  77. Battle of Coral Sea:
    Kept Japanese from Australia
  78. Battle of Midway:
    Turning point of Pacific
  79. Okinawa:
    Supposed to be launching point for invasion of Japan
  80. Hiroshima and Nagasaki:
    Where atomic bombs were dropped
  81. Blitzkrieg:
    lightning war – Germany’s attack on Poland
  82. Non-Aggression Pact:
    signed between Hitler and Stalin – broken by Hitler
  83. Containment:
    policy of containing communism to those areas already under Soviet control
  84. Truman Doctrine:
    Policy of giving military and economic aid to countries resisting communism
  85. Berlin Airlift:
    allied response to Soviet blockades that included a year long round the clock plane arriving in Berlin with supplies
  86. NATO:
    alliance b/w US, Canada, and W. Europe in case of an attack from USSR
  87. Warsaw Pact:
    alliance b/w USSR and E. Europe in case of an attack from democratic west.
  88. Sputnik:
    first artificial satellite that was sent into orbit by the Soviet Union, starting the Space Race
  89. Domino Theory:
    the idea that if one SE Asian country falls to communism so will their neighbors
  90. Ho Chi Minh:
    Communist leader of N. Vietnam
  91. Pol Pot:
    Leader of the Khmer Rouge, committed the Cambodian genocide
  92. Fidel Castro:
    Leader of the communist revolution in Cuba
  93. Prehistoric art:
    Showed elements of animism in their cave art
  94. Egyptian art:
    Revolved around life after death as revealed in their funeral art that depicted the Ka transitioning into its after life
  95. Greek art:
    Architects sought to convey a sense of perfect balance. An example is the Parthenon.
  96. Hellenistic art:
    Included the sculpture of Nike, the winged victory masterpiece. More dramatic than Greek art.
  97. Roman art:
    Depicts scenes about the growing new religion, Christianity in their mosaics & frescos
  98. Byzantine art:
    The best architectural example is the Hagia Sophia. Its mosaics depicted icons of saints with halos over the heads
  99. Medieval:
    Included illuminated manuscripts which decorated letters & framed text with designs
  100. Muslim art:
    Used arabesque design composed of curved lines that suggested floral shapes which appeared in rugs, textiles & glassware
  101. Italian Renaissance:
    Included the “rebirth”of the technique of perspective where the artist gives the illusion of depth intheir paintings. Artists include da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael
  102. Northern Renaissance:
    Examples of an artist from this period is Jan van Eyck whose use of the new medium of oil paints produced strong colors.
  103. Art of the Enlightenment:
    This period is exemplified by Le Brun & depicted very personal detailed scenes in their paintings.
  104. Impressionism:
    Artists such as Claude Monet attempted to capture the first fleeting view of a scene or object on the viewer’seye
  105. Surrealism:
    Artists such as Salvador Dali attempted to portray the workings of the unconscious mind
  106. Post Impressionism:
    Is exemplified by Georges Seurat & his use of small dots of color to define shapes or objects
  107. Romanticism:
    Artistslike J.M.W. Turner sought to capture the beauty & power of nature
  108. Cubism:
    Artists such as Pablo Picasso was influenced by African Art. They also broke three-dimensional objects into fragments & composed them into complex patterns of angles & planes
  109. Realism:
    Artists such as Gustavbe Courbet attempted to represent the world as it was, focusing on the harsh side of life in cities or villages
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Spring Pre Ap World History Review Pt. 2
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