was the most influential in helping Germany to unify. William I and William II were ruling as Bismarck was unifying. William I supported Bismarck, but William II ended up forcing him toresign.
Increased German nationalism
•Seven Weeks War:
Established dominance over Austria = Prussia leads German unification & Creates NorthGerman Confederation led by Prussia
Prussia gained Alsace-Lorraine from France. & Gained lots of money. Also - Kaiser = Emperor of Germany – 2nd Reich, Germany unified with Bismarck = Chancellor
•What was Italy like pre-1850? How did Count Cavour & Sardinia change the face of
Italy/start unification? How did Garibaldi?
What was their negotiation?
–Pre 1850: Series of divided nation-states: Growth of Nationalism, Congress of
Vienna ignored nationalist ideas, Hapsburgs (Austria) controlled n.
Italy – nationalists wanted them out!, Development of nationalist groups
Garibaldi– wanted a united Italy (shared common language & history – end trade barriers)
realistic assessment of power (often ruthless & violent)
Industrial Revolution When? Where? Why?
Started in Great Britain – more COAL, more PEOPLE, STABLE government, Money, etc
lands that used to be for everyone closed off for the rich – can experimenthere
Invents the seed drill
Improved the steam engine
Steam powered ship
identified the bacteria that causes tuberculosis
trained nurses and insisted on hygiene in hospitals
proponent of urban renewal inParis
discovered how antiseptics stopped infection
Said population will outgrow food
government should leave businesses alone; the market will govern itself
founded by Jeremy Bentham; wanted the government to intervene and do the most amount of good for the most amount of people
peopleas a whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the means of production
theorized by Karl Marx; he believed that history was a struggle between the “haves”and the “have-nots”and the have-nots or proletariats were going to rise up against the middle class (or bourgeoisie) in revolution and make a class-less society
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countriespolitically, economically, and socially