Biology Semester 2
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What are autotrophs?
Organisms that make their own food
What are two things that an autotroph does?
- 1.) absorb the energy of sunlight
- 2.) make carbohydrates
Who discovered photosynthesis?
What are the 3 requirements of photosynthesis?
- 1.) Energy (light)
- 2.) Matter CO2 and H2O
- 3.) Place- Chloroplasts
What is the GRANA in photosynthesis?
Membranes with pigments to absorb light
What is the STROMA in photosynthesis?
Liquid medium for chemical reactions
What are the two phases of photosynthesis?
- 1.) Photophase (aka "light reactions")
- 2.) Synthesis Phase (aka "dark reactions")
Name the 6 things that happens during photophase
- a) light energy is absorbed by pigment in grana
- b) energy splits water into 2H+, 2e-&0
- c) Oxygen is released into the air
- d) energy from the 2e makes 2ATP
- e) 2e and 2H+ picked up by NADP+ and carried to stroma as NADPH
- f) ATP diffuses to stroma
What are the three stages of the sythesis phase?
- a) CO2 is absorbed into the stroma
- b) CO2 combines with e- and H+ (from NADPH) to form glucose in the Calvin Cycle
- c) energy is from ATP and e-
Equation for Photosynthesis??
- 6CO2+6H2O+LIGHT-----> C6H12O6+6O2
What are the four factor that affect photosynthesis?
- 1. Concentration of CO2
- 2. Light intensity
- 3. Consentration of H2O
- 4. Temperature
As CO2 increases the rate of what increases?
As temperature rises, the rate of photosynthesis what?
What is cellular respiration?
an aerobic process that requires oxygen
Where does cellular respiration take place?
cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria
What uses cellular respiration?
Heterotrophs and Autotrophs
What are the three requirements of cellular respiration?
- 1. Energy source
- 2. Oxygen and Water
- 3. Place
What are the four phases of Respiration?
- 1. Glycolosis
- 2. Transition
- 3. Kreb's Citric Acid Cycle
- 4. Oxydative Phosphorylation
What is glycolosis?
An anaerobic phase in the cytoplasm
What is transition?
An aerobic process in the matrix of mitochondria
What is the Kreb's Citric Acid Cycle?
An aerobic process in the matrix of Mitochondria
What is oxydative phosphorylation?
(ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN)
An aerobic process in christae and mitochondria
What happens in Glycolysis?
- 1.Glucose (6C) is split into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID (2X3c)
- 2. 4e-and 4H+ released to NAD+ to form NADH
- 3. 2ATP used and 4ATP made
What happens during transition?
- 1. breakdown of 2 pyruvic acid to 2 acetyl CoA and 2CO2
- 2. 4e- and 4H+ released to NAD to form NADH
Organisms pass energy and biomass by eating and/or being eaten
Interconnected food chains in an ecosystem
What are the trophic levels?
What are the two main trophic levels?
What happens in a food pyramid?
What is interdependence?
ecological concept that all living things affect and are affected by the other living things within their ecosystem/habitat
What is an ecosystem?
area where living things and noliving environment interact to maintain balance
Living organisms in an ecosystem
- chemical components
- energy source
- climate- precipitation, temperature, wind direction
- topography- shape of the land
What is a habitat?
Area within an ecosystem where a species of an organism that fills a niche
What is a niche?
full range of physical and biological conditions in shich a population lives and the way in which a population uses these conditions
What are the "requirements" of a niche?
- a. temperature range it requires
- b. shelter it requires
- c. position in the food web
- d. resources it uses
- e. resources it leaves behind
Water cycle stages
- a. condensation
- b. precipitation
- c. seepage (percolation)
- d. runoff
- e. root uptake (absorption)
- f. evaporation, transpiration, perspiration
Carbon cycle stages
- a. photosynthesis
- b. respiration
- c. food chain
- d. deconposition
- e. combustion
Nitrogen cycle stages
- a. nitrogen fixation
- b. nitrification
- c. anabolism
- d. food chain
- e. decomposition
- f. denitrification
Phosphate cycle stages
- a. dissolution
- b. root uptake (absorption)
- c. anabolism
- d. food chain
- e. decomposition
- f. sedimentation
What is the rate at which organic matter is produced by plants in an ecosystem?
Which organisms most likely return nutrients to soil?
Branch of biology dealing with interactions among organisms and their environment
Origional source of energy in an ecosystem?
steps in food chain or web
Energy and biomass flow in an ecosystem can be expressed as a pyramid because......
less energy + biomass stored in higher trophic levels of food web
What is competition?
Organisms in overlapping niches use some of the same resources or eat some of the same food
What is predatation ?
- organisms on adjoining trophic levels on the food chain
- a. predator eats prey
- b. each affects the others population
what is symbiosis?
- unrelated species in an ecosystem that live in a close relationship
- a. mutualism- each species benefits from the other
- b. commensalism- one species benefits and the other is unaffected
- c. parasitism- the parasite benefits and the host is harmed
- constant change within an ecosystem as a response to natural phenomena and/or human disturbances
- a. older inhabitants move out
- b. new organisms more in
- a. succession on land where no soil exists
- b. pioneer species take hold
- c. decay forms soil
- a. disturbance changes a community without removing soil
- b. plant seeds enter the area and repopulate the land
- a. mature stable community
- b. no more succession or too slow to be noticed
genes for different traits separate independently of one another
principle of segregation
paired alleles seperate when gamets are formed in a cell division called meiosis
Principal of dominance
- Dominant alleles
- a. hide other alleles
- recessive alleles
- b. hidden allele that is shown when no dominant allele is shown
Principal of pairs
- Genes for a trait are in pairs
- a. one allele from each parent
- b. an allele refers to the different forms of genes
- c. two pairs put together makes a genotype
- d. alleles that are the same are homozygous
- e. alleles taht are different are heterozygous
- f. the genotype determines an individual's phenotype
- 2 different kinds
- 1. X & Y, XX= female, XY= male
- 2. chromosomes that contain genes that code for sex characteristics
genes that are often inherited together due to close physical proximity on the same chromosome
What is crossing over?
exchange of genes between homologus chromosomes
- 1. sex determination
- 2. genes linked on the sex chromosomes
- 3. traits inherited more in one sex than the other
- traits inherited more in one sex than the other
- genes on autosomes that are activated by sex hormones
why can a father only pass x-linked genes to daughters?
the x does not go to sons on the punnet square
x- linked dominant inherited more in ....
x-linked recessive inherited more in......
What happens in interphase?
cells undergo a round of DNA replication
what happens in prophase 1?
chromosome pairs with matching homologus chromosome
What happens in the metaphase 1 ?
spindle fibers attatch to chromosomes and line up in the middle
What happens in anaphase 1?
Fibers pull the chromosomes towards opposite side of cell
What happens in telophase 1?
Nuclear membranes form, cell separates into 2
What happens in prophase 2?
2 haploid daughter cells, each 1/2 number chromosomes as origional
What happens in metaphase 2?
chromosomes line in a similar way to metaphase stage
What hapens in anaphase 2?
sister chromatids separate and move to opposite end
What happens in telophase 2?
Results in 4 haploid daughter cells (separating)
What are gametes?
4 individual sperm cells
How many cell divisions occur during meiosis?
how many cells are formed?
What would you like to do?
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