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a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a condensation reaction
Polysaccherides, proteins and nucleic acids are these
Macromolecules or polymers
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
smaller molecules that are the repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer
how are monomers connected?
by a reaction in which 2 molecules are covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a water molecule
a reaction in which 2 molecules are covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a water molecule
also called a dehydration reaction
when a bond forms between 2 monomers, each monomer contributes part of the water molecule that is lost
one molecule provides a hydroxyl group (-OH)
one provides a hydrogen (-H)
this reaction is repeated as monomers are added one by one to a chain making a .......
macromolecules serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction (speed up chemical reactions in cells)
what process is facilitated by enzymes?
Dehydration process (synthesis)
how are polymers disassembled to monomers?
bonds between the monomers are broken by the addition of water what is this process called ?
A process of linking monomers that involves that involves the removal of 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atoms to form water (catalyzed by a polymerase enzyme)
how does hydrolysis break a bond between 2 monomers?
breaks using water (molecules)hydrogen from the water attaches to 1 monomer and a hydroxyl group attaching to the other monomer
a sugar (monosaccharide) or disaccharide or polymers (polysaccharide)
what is the structure formula for glucose?
what is the most common monosaccharide?
sugars that have 6 carbons are called
glucose with 3 carbons
what are the ways of classifying sugars?
- by units
- by #of carbons in the sugar (carbon skeleton)
- or location of the carbons (aldehyde, keytose)
2 monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage
a covalent bond formed between monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
a polymer of many monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions
plants and animals store sugars for later use in the form of storage polysaccharides.
plants store starch (a polymer of glucose monomers) within cellular structures.
aldose (aldehyde sugar) and ketose (ketone sugar)
what is the storage polysaccharide of plants? Animals?
- the storage of energy
- plants = starch
- glycose= animals
what are the similarities/ differences between plant storage polysaccharides and animal polysaccharides?
- both made up of glucose monomers
- differ in structure= glycogen is highly branced compared to starch
Can most organisms digest cellulose? Why?
No because we lack the enzyme to break it down. Cellulose is very ridged and aids in the smooth working of the intestinal tract
alpha and beta bonds
alpha bonds have their 1-4 linkages and the hydroxyl groups all aligned
beta bonds 1-4 linkages and the hydroxyl groups are upside down and opposite
why does cellulose represent an excellent example of the relationship between form and function at the macromolecular level?
describe the levels of organization within a plant cell wall
how do you survive if you cant photosynthesize?
- you eat photosynthesizers
- or something that has eaten a photosynthesizer
what are 2 forms of starch polysaccharides?
- Amylopectin (branched)
why dont plants need short term energy stores like animals?
- they are photosynthesizers
- they dont move around enough to use up a lot of energy in a short time
where do plants store their starch?
the roots and seeds
what are the plant reserves stored in seeds and roots used for?
- survival (temp change)
what is the storage polysaccharide for animals?
where are the main glycogen storage regions?
in the liver and muscles
why are the main glycogen storage regions in the muscles and liver?
- b/c there is a huge amount of energy needed to move muscles
- and also for regulating blood sugar levels
what suffix do sugar names usually end in ?
what are structural polysaccharides?
polysaccharides that form the structure of an organism
what are 2 structural polysaccharides?
what is the main biological structural polysaccharide?
what is cellulose used for?
cell walls for protection
why are lipids an unusual group of molecules?
- b/c they are all non polar
- dont make polymers
- consist mostly of hydrocarbon regions
what are the 3 most biologically important types of lipids?
why are lipids grouped together
they share an important trait- mix poorly in water
describe the structure of a fat or (triaglycerol)
- one molecule of glycerol attached to 3 fatty acids by dehydration reaction called an ester linkage
how are fats classified? 2 groups: describe their difference
- saturated fats: no double bonds= solid form
- unsaturated fats: double bonds= liquid form
what are hydrogenated fats?
naturally unsaturated fats that are chemically forced to be saturated by hydrogen bonding
what do fats do in the body? 4 points
- provide insulation
- store energy
- help in lubrication
- protect you/ give shape to your body
why are fats such excellent energy molecules?
b/c they have twice as much energy storage space than other molecules
where do plants store fat?
describe the structure of phospholipids
- a glycerol molecule w/2 attachment points.
- 2 fatty acid chains
a hydrophilic head and 2 hydrophobic tails one saturated and one unsaturated
how are diff phospholipids characterized?
type, # and position of functional groups attached to the phosphate head
what is the basic structure of steroids?
- a carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings
- the diff steroids vary in the chemical groups attached to the ensemble of rings
what is one of the most important steroids in animals?
what are its functions?
- maintaining membrane structure in cells
- precursor for all other steroids in the body (sex hormones)
what are the most common type of macromolecules in cells?
our genetic code is a code for protein structure. what is this called? Proteins carry out the instructions for this
8 classes of proteins
- structural proteins
- enzymatic proteins
- storage proteins
- transport proteins
- hormonal proteins
- receptor proteins
- muscle proteins
- defense proteins
what do enzymatic proteins do?
- regulate metabolism by acting as catalysts
- keep cells running by carrying out the process of life
what are proteins?
polymers constructed from sets of amino acids called polypeptides
what are polypeptides?
polymers of amino acids
what are amino acids?
the building blocks of proteins
what are the individual components of an amino acid?
what differentiates one amino acid from another?
the R group components
what is the chemical character of a generic amino acid? 4 categories
- it has a basic side and an acidic side
- non polar and a polar side
what are the ends of a protein called?
n terminus and c terminus
what are the 3 structures of proteins?
- primary structure
- secondary structure
- tertiary structure
what is the bond between amino acid monomers called?
what is involved in the secondary structure of a protein?
hydrogen bonding between remnants of amino and carboxyl groups
what are the 3 kinds of structure of secondary structure?
- alpha helix
- beta pleated sheets
- random coil
what are nucleic acids?
are biological molecules essential for life, and include DNA
where is DNA found?
in the nucleus
how is DNA info used?
to make copies
what are copies of our genes called?
what is replication?
process of copying DNA into more DNA
what is transcription?
the process of copying DNA into RNA (not an exact copy)
what are DNA and RNA made up of?
what are the 3 components of nucleotides?
- nitrogenous bases
what is the sugar of a nucleotide?
5 carbon ribose sugar (pentose sugar)