chapter 5

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Author:
trishbro
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88490
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chapter 5
Updated:
2011-06-15 01:52:22
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structure function large biological molecules
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the structure and function of large biological molecules
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  1. a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a condensation reaction
    Polysaccherides, proteins and nucleic acids are these
    Macromolecules or polymers
  2. polymer
    a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
  3. monomers
    smaller molecules that are the repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer
  4. how are monomers connected?
    by a reaction in which 2 molecules are covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a water molecule
  5. a reaction in which 2 molecules are covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a water molecule
    also called a dehydration reaction
    condensation reaction
  6. when a bond forms between 2 monomers, each monomer contributes part of the water molecule that is lost
    one molecule provides a hydroxyl group (-OH)
    one provides a hydrogen (-H)
    this reaction is repeated as monomers are added one by one to a chain making a .......
    polymer
  7. enzymes
    macromolecules serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction (speed up chemical reactions in cells)
  8. what process is facilitated by enzymes?
    Dehydration process (synthesis)
  9. how are polymers disassembled to monomers?
    by hydrolysis
  10. bonds between the monomers are broken by the addition of water what is this process called ?
    hydrolysis
  11. A process of linking monomers that involves that involves the removal of 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atoms to form water (catalyzed by a polymerase enzyme)
    dehydration synthesis
  12. how does hydrolysis break a bond between 2 monomers?
    breaks using water (molecules)hydrogen from the water attaches to 1 monomer and a hydroxyl group attaching to the other monomer
  13. a sugar (monosaccharide) or disaccharide or polymers (polysaccharide)
    carbohydrate
  14. what is the structure formula for glucose?
    C6H12O6
  15. what is the most common monosaccharide?
    glucose C6H12O6
  16. sugars that have 6 carbons are called
    Hexose
  17. Triose
    glucose with 3 carbons
  18. 5 carbon sugar
    pentose
  19. what are the ways of classifying sugars?
    • by units
    • by #of carbons in the sugar (carbon skeleton)
    • or location of the carbons (aldehyde, keytose)
  20. disaccharide
    2 monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage
  21. a covalent bond formed between monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
    glycosidic linkage
  22. a polymer of many monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions
    polysaccharide
  23. storage polysaccharides=
    plants and animals store sugars for later use in the form of storage polysaccharides.
    plants store starch (a polymer of glucose monomers) within cellular structures.
  24. aldose (aldehyde sugar) and ketose (ketone sugar)
  25. what is the storage polysaccharide of plants? Animals?
    • the storage of energy
    • plants = starch
    • glycose= animals
  26. what are the similarities/ differences between plant storage polysaccharides and animal polysaccharides?
    • both made up of glucose monomers
    • differ in structure= glycogen is highly branced compared to starch
  27. Can most organisms digest cellulose? Why?
    No because we lack the enzyme to break it down. Cellulose is very ridged and aids in the smooth working of the intestinal tract
  28. alpha and beta bonds
    alpha bonds have their 1-4 linkages and the hydroxyl groups all aligned

    beta bonds 1-4 linkages and the hydroxyl groups are upside down and opposite
  29. cellulose:
    why does cellulose represent an excellent example of the relationship between form and function at the macromolecular level?
  30. describe the levels of organization within a plant cell wall
  31. how do you survive if you cant photosynthesize?
    • you eat photosynthesizers
    • or something that has eaten a photosynthesizer
  32. what are 2 forms of starch polysaccharides?
    • Amylose
    • Amylopectin (branched)
  33. why dont plants need short term energy stores like animals?
    • they are photosynthesizers
    • they dont move around enough to use up a lot of energy in a short time
  34. where do plants store their starch?
    the roots and seeds
  35. what are the plant reserves stored in seeds and roots used for?
    • reproduction
    • survival (temp change)
  36. what is the storage polysaccharide for animals?
    glycogen
  37. where are the main glycogen storage regions?
    in the liver and muscles
  38. why are the main glycogen storage regions in the muscles and liver?
    • b/c there is a huge amount of energy needed to move muscles
    • and also for regulating blood sugar levels
  39. what suffix do sugar names usually end in ?
    OSE
  40. what are structural polysaccharides?
    polysaccharides that form the structure of an organism
  41. what are 2 structural polysaccharides?
    • cellulose
    • chitin
  42. what is the main biological structural polysaccharide?
    Cellulose
  43. what is cellulose used for?
    cell walls for protection
  44. why are lipids an unusual group of molecules?
    • b/c they are all non polar
    • dont make polymers
    • consist mostly of hydrocarbon regions
  45. what are the 3 most biologically important types of lipids?
    • fats
    • phospholipids
    • steroids
  46. why are lipids grouped together
    they share an important trait- mix poorly in water
  47. describe the structure of a fat or (triaglycerol)
    • one molecule of glycerol attached to 3 fatty acids by dehydration reaction called an ester linkage
  48. how are fats classified? 2 groups: describe their difference
    • saturated fats: no double bonds= solid form
    • unsaturated fats: double bonds= liquid form
  49. what are hydrogenated fats?
    naturally unsaturated fats that are chemically forced to be saturated by hydrogen bonding
  50. what do fats do in the body? 4 points
    • provide insulation
    • store energy
    • help in lubrication
    • protect you/ give shape to your body
  51. why are fats such excellent energy molecules?
    b/c they have twice as much energy storage space than other molecules
  52. where do plants store fat?
    seeds
  53. describe the structure of phospholipids
    • a glycerol molecule w/2 attachment points.
    • 2 fatty acid chains

    a hydrophilic head and 2 hydrophobic tails one saturated and one unsaturated
  54. how are diff phospholipids characterized?
    type, # and position of functional groups attached to the phosphate head
  55. what is the basic structure of steroids?
    • a carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings
    • the diff steroids vary in the chemical groups attached to the ensemble of rings
  56. what is one of the most important steroids in animals?
    what are its functions?
    • cholesterol
    • maintaining membrane structure in cells
    • precursor for all other steroids in the body (sex hormones)
  57. what are the most common type of macromolecules in cells?
    proteins
  58. our genetic code is a code for protein structure. what is this called? Proteins carry out the instructions for this
    DNA
  59. 8 classes of proteins
    • structural proteins
    • enzymatic proteins
    • storage proteins
    • transport proteins
    • hormonal proteins
    • receptor proteins
    • muscle proteins
    • defense proteins
  60. what do enzymatic proteins do?
    • regulate metabolism by acting as catalysts
    • keep cells running by carrying out the process of life
  61. what are proteins?
    polymers constructed from sets of amino acids called polypeptides
  62. what are polypeptides?
    polymers of amino acids
  63. what are amino acids?
    the building blocks of proteins
  64. what are the individual components of an amino acid?
  65. what differentiates one amino acid from another?
    the R group components
  66. what is the chemical character of a generic amino acid? 4 categories
    • it has a basic side and an acidic side
    • non polar and a polar side
  67. what are the ends of a protein called?
    n terminus and c terminus
  68. what are the 3 structures of proteins?
    • primary structure
    • secondary structure
    • tertiary structure
  69. what is the bond between amino acid monomers called?
    peptide bond
  70. what is involved in the secondary structure of a protein?
    hydrogen bonding between remnants of amino and carboxyl groups
  71. what are the 3 kinds of structure of secondary structure?
    • alpha helix
    • beta pleated sheets
    • random coil
  72. what are nucleic acids?
    are biological molecules essential for life, and include DNA
  73. where is DNA found?
    in the nucleus
  74. how is DNA info used?
    to make copies
  75. what are copies of our genes called?
    • Messenger RNA
    • mRNA
  76. what is replication?
    process of copying DNA into more DNA
  77. what is transcription?
    the process of copying DNA into RNA (not an exact copy)
  78. what are DNA and RNA made up of?
    nucleotides
  79. what are the 3 components of nucleotides?
    • sugar
    • phosphate
    • nitrogenous bases
  80. what is the sugar of a nucleotide?
    5 carbon ribose sugar (pentose sugar)

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