Chapter 6 " Perception and Individual Decision Making"

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angelitics
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88509
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Chapter 6 " Perception and Individual Decision Making"
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2011-05-31 01:13:21
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Chapter 6 "Perception and Individual Decision Making"
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  1. A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment
    perception
  2. An attempt to determine whether an individual's behavior is internally or externally caused
    attribution theory
  3. The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about behavior of others
    fundamental attribution error
  4. The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors and put the blame for failures on external factors
    self-serving bias
  5. The tendency to selectively interpret what one sees on the basis of one's interest, background, experience, and attitudes.
    selective perception
  6. The tendency to draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristics
    halo effect
  7. Evaluation of a person's characteristics that is affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics
    contrast effect
  8. Judging someone on the basis of one's perception of the group to which that person belongs.
    stereotyping
  9. A situation in which a person inaccurately perceives a second person, and the resulting expectations caused the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception
    self-fulfilling prophecy
  10. Choices made from among two or more alternatives
    decisions
  11. A discrepancy between the current state of affairs and some desired state
    problem
  12. Characterized by making consistent, value-maximizing choices within specified constraints
    rational
  13. A decision-making model that describes how individual should behave in order to maximize some outcome
    rational decision- making model
  14. A process of making decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity
    bounded rationality
  15. An unconscious process created out of distilled experience
    intuitive decision making
  16. A tendency to fixate on initial information, from which one then fails to adequately adjust for subsequent information
    anchoring bias
  17. The tendency to seek out information that reaffirms past choices and to discount information that contradicts past judgments
    confirmation bias
  18. The tendency for people to base their judgment on information that is readily available to them
    availability bias
  19. An increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information
    escalation of commitment
  20. The tendency of individuals to believe that they can predict the outcome of random events
    randomness error
  21. The tendency to prefer a sure gain of a moderate amount over riskier outcome, even if the riskier outcome might have a higher expected payoff
    risk aversion
  22. The tendency to believe falsely, after an outcome of an event is actually known, that one would have accurately predicted that outcome
    hindsight bias
  23. A system in which decisions are made to provide the greatest good for the greatest number
    utilitarianism
  24. Individuals who report unethical practice by their employer to outsiders
    whistle- blowers
  25. The ability to produce novel and useful ideas.
    creativity
  26. The proposition that individual creativity requires expertise, creative thinking skills, and intrinsic task motivation
    three-component model of creativity

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