phenobarbital.txt

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Author:
papeirce
ID:
88557
Filename:
phenobarbital.txt
Updated:
2011-05-31 11:32:56
Tags:
paramedic medications drugs prehospital phenobarbital luminol
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Description:
Prehospital Medication Flashcards for Paramedic School - Massachusetts and Rhode Island
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  1. Phenobarbital

    Trade Name
    Luminal
  2. Phenobarbital

    Class
    • Sedative
    • Anticonvulsant
    • Long acting barbiturate
  3. Phenobarbital

    Mechanism of Action
    • Phenobarbital is enhances the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA
    • Sedative and hypnotic effects of barbiturates appear to be due primarily to interference with impulse transmission of the cerebral cortex by inhibition of reticular activating system.
    • Limits the spread of seizure activity by increasing threshold for motor cortex activity
  4. Phenobarbital

    Indications
    • Prevention & treatment activity
    • Anxiety
  5. Phenobarbital

    Contraindications
    • Hypersensitivity
    • Severe liver & respiratory disease
  6. Phenobarbital

    Adverse Reactions
    • Hypotension
    • Bradycardia
    • Respiratory Depression
    • CNS Depression
    • Nystagmus
    • Nausea/Vomiting
    • Bruising at the injection site
  7. Phenobarbital

    Drug Interactions
    • Other anticonvulsants
    • CNS Depressants
    • MAOI's may potentiate effects
  8. Phenobarbital

    How Supplied
    Specific to protocol (Rhode Island)
  9. Phenobarbital

    Dosage and Administration
    Adult
    (None listed)
  10. Phenobarbital

    Dosage and Administration
    Pediatric
    • 20 mg/kg IV, at rate <50 mg/min
    • May administer additional doses of 5 mg/kg every 20 minutes, as necessary, to control seizure activity
  11. Phenobarbital

    Duration of Action
    • Onset: 3-30 minutes
    • Peak Effects: > 15 min
    • Duration: 4-6 hours
  12. Phenobarbital

    Special Considerations
    • Pregnancy Safety: Category B
    • Has potential for abuse
    • Carefully monitor vital signs and be prepared to assist ventilations as necessary.
    • Phenobarbital may be substituted for other barbiturates as a method of decreasing the incidence of withdrawal symptoms while weaning patients off barbiturates.
    • Use with caution in patients with pulmonary, cardiovascular, hepatic or renal insufficiency.
    • Hypoglycemic seizures should be treated with glucose, not phenobarbital, which will not resolve the hypoglycemic state or prevent CNS injury.
    • Use large, stable vein for injection (extravasation may cause tissue necrosis)

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