Bioconcepts Cells

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Bioconcepts Cells
2011-05-31 15:58:38
BioConcepts Cells

Bioconcepts cells
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  1. a summary measure of not only the total number of lives lost but also an estimate of the time and extent of disability caused as well
    DALY or disability adjusted life year
  2. the identification and classification of a disease
  3. any disruption of vital function of an organism caused by genetic, environmental, or developmental factors
  4. the cause(s) of a disease
  5. a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being; not merely the absence of disease
  6. caused inadvertently by medical treatment
  7. no known cause
  8. the state of being in an unhealthy condition
  9. the rate of occurrence of new cases of a disease in a population over time
  10. the incidence, etiology, and pathogenesis of a disease
    natural history of disease
  11. the process(es) by which a disease occurs and progresses
  12. the most likely course and outcome of a disease
  13. objectively observable findings caused by a disease
  14. subjective elements of a disease experienced by the patient
  15. lowered pH of tissues caused as cells accumulate lactic acid when oxygen is not available for respiration, inducing fatigue, decreased ability to function, and ultimately death
  16. a protein found in cell filaments that mediates muscle contraction, cell movement, and maintains cell shape
  17. movement of substances across the plasma membrane against a concentration or electrical gradient by consuming energy (ATP)
    active transport
  18. process by which food, in the absence of oxygen, is broken down outside the mitochondria into 3 carbon fragments. This less efficient ATP-producing process produces lactic acid which accumulates in cells causing acidosis
    anaerobic glycolysis
  19. an energy storing molecule produced by mitochondria
  20. processes or substances produced by cells that act back on the cells themselves
  21. that portion of the extracellular matrix that binds epithelial tissues to supporting connective tissues
    basement membrane
  22. the complete sequence of events that occur from one cell division to the next
    cell cycle
  23. modified points of contact on the plasma membranes of cells that serve specialized functions
    cell junctions
  24. the process of cell-to-cell communication mediated by signaling molecules and membrane receptors
    cell signaling
  25. the processes by which cells transfer oxygen from food thereby producing water, carbon dioxide, and ATP that stored as an energy source
    cellular respiration
  26. decreased facilitated transport of substances that results from selective binding of transport receptors by other substances
    competitive inhibition
  27. specialized tissue that holds skin and organs together and in place
    connective tissue
  28. regulatory proteins produced by cells, principally cells of the immune system, that activate other cells to replicate and/or perform other functions
  29. division of the cytoplasm into two daughter cells during mitosis
  30. the organized complex of organic and inorganic intracellular substances inside the plasma membrane and external to the nucleus that includes the cell fluid or cytosol and organelles
  31. the network of protein filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm that controls cell shape, maintains intracellular organization, and is involved in cell movement
  32. neutralization of the resting membrane potential caused by an influx of sodium ions into the cell associated with the propagation of electrical signals from cell-to-cell
  33. cell junctions that bind cells and their cytoskeletons together to brace tissues and give the body form
  34. processes by which cells internalize external substances by engulfing them and moving them into their cytoplasm in vesicles
  35. a complex web of cytoplasmic membranes for transporting substances between the nucleus, other organelles, and the plasma membrane
    endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
  36. tissue that covers the internal and external surfaces of the body, enclosing it and regulating the movement of external substances in and out
  37. higher animals and plants with cells that have a nucleus as well as other membrane-bound intracellular compartments
  38. process by which cells expel substances out of the cytoplasm into their surroundings by fusing vesicles with the plasma membrane
  39. a complex mixture of non-living material including proteins and carbohydrates that surround living cells and tissues providing protection and support
    extracellular matrix (ECM)
  40. passive mediated transport
    facilitated transport
  41. connective tissue cells that produce fibrous components of extracellular matrix like collagen and elastin
  42. the first "gap" phase of the cell cycle where there is no replication occurring. Terminally differentiated cells such as nerve cells permanently exist in this phase.
  43. The second "gap" phase of the cell cycle that follows DNA synthesis when RNA and proteins are produced preceding M or mitosis
  44. cell junctions that allow ions and other small molecules to flow between cells mediating processes such as cell-to-cell depolarization
    gap junctions
  45. an organelle composed of layers of membranes and vesicles that modifies the structure of proteins
    Golgi complex
  46. water soluble proteins that complex with and stabilize DNA
  47. molecules either produced by cells or chemically synthesized that circulate in the blood stream and alter replication and/or function of distant cells through cell signaling
  48. glycoproteins that span across cell membranes and anchor tissue to the extracellular matrix
  49. all other stages of the cell cycle other than M or mitosis
  50. specialized vesicles containing enzymes that digest substances
  51. the phase during the cell cycle when mitosis occurs, usually lasting approximately one hour
  52. movement of substances across the plasma membrane either actively or passively that is mediated exclusively by protein transport receptors
    mediated transport
  53. transfer of any disease causing agent from one part of the body to another associated with the development of the same pathologic changes in the new location
  54. the organelle containing respiratory enzymes that conduct cellular respiration by a process called oxidative phosphorylation
  55. nuclear and chromosomal splitting during cell division that results in the formation of two daughter cells with essentially the same genetic complement as the parent cell
  56. specialized nerve cells that cause contraction of adjacent muscle cells during depolarization
    motor nerves
  57. specialized tissue that provides movement necessary for body function
  58. a globular muscle protein that can consume ATP and reversibly interact with actin to cause cellular contraction by forming a complex called actomyosin
  59. specialized tissue that transmits electrical signals throughout the body
    nerve tissue
  60. hormones produced by specialized nerve cells
  61. chemicals released by depolarized nerve cells into synapses that induce depolarization of cells downstream
  62. the spherical body within the nucleus that mediates protein transcription
  63. the largest organelle in eukaryotes containing chromosomes and the nucleolus that directs cell division, cell function, and protein synthesis
  64. groups of organs that work together to perform a specific body function such as digestion, excretion, circulation, reproduction, etc.
    organ systems
  65. any cytoplasmic compartment surrounded by an internal membrane that performs a specific life function such as protein syntheses, oxidative phosphorylation, digestion of foreign particles, etc.
  66. aggregates of tissues that perform a particular body function such as digestion, hormone production, excretion, circulation, etc.
  67. a complex chemical process that occurs on the surface of mitochondria converting food substrates into simpler molecules and storing energy in the form of ATP
    oxidative phosphorylation
  68. processes or substances produced by cells that act on adjacent cells
  69. movement of small, non-charged, lipid-soluble substances across the plasma membrane using physical forces without energy consumption
    passive transport
  70. a specialized form of endocytosis usually performed by white blood cells used to remove and digest foreign materials such as bacteria and tissue debris
  71. the semipermiable layer around cells; composed of inner and outer surfaces of protein surrounding a third layer of lipid that is usually covered with indentations and projections
    plasma membrane
  72. organisms such as bacteria and some algae that have cells lacking a nucleus.
  73. specialized protein structures on plasma or nuclear membranes that bind signaling molecules and mediate cell signaling
  74. the difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of cells, a negative internal charge relative to the outside.
    resting membrane potential
  75. aggregates of RNA that coat some of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and regulate protein synthesis
  76. the period during the cell cycle when DNA replication occurs
  77. molecules that bind to protein receptors on cellular membranes triggering intracellular reactions that activate genes that alter cellular growth or function
    signaling molecules
  78. spaces between nerve cells lying close together where the depolarization of one nerve cell causes release of neurotransmitters into the space that trigger depolarization of the adjacent nerve cell
  79. cell junctions that seal cells together as tissues
    tight junctions
  80. aggregates of cells that form structures that perform specialized function such as movement, transmission of electrical signals, body structure, etc.
  81. larger, specialized vesicles formed within the cytoplasm to digest materials taken in by phagocytosis
  82. a membrane bound pouch in cells that contains substances