Bioconcepts genetics

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Bioconcepts genetics
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2011-05-31 16:26:44
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bioconcepts genetics
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  1. mutations in non-reproductive cells of the body that persist and are transferred during mitosis to daughter cells affecting only those daughter cells
    acquired mutation
  2. alternative forms of a gene that may be present at a locus
    allele
  3. a procedure that harvests cells that have peeled off of the skin of a developing fetus and are floating in amniotic fluid in order to perform genetic testing
    amniocentesis
  4. a cell with too many or too few copies of each chromosome resulting in a non diploid complement
    aneuploidy
  5. programmed cell death, a natural process that the body uses to dispose of old, damaged or unwanted cells
    apoptosis
  6. any of the 22 non sex chromosomes in the karyotype
    autosome
  7. the collection, organization and analysis of large amounts of biological data, such as gene sequences and the proteins they produce, using networks of computers and databases. A bioinformatics system consists of an internal database, links to external public databases, and software containing algorithms for access, analysis, integration, manipulation, and visualization of the data in a variety of ways.
    bioinformatics
  8. individuals with a normal phenotype who carry a dominant normal and an abnormal recessive gene at a particular locus and could therefore potentially produce normal or abnormal offspring
    carriers
  9. a procedure that harvests embryonic cells from the placental tissue of a developing pregnancy in order to perform genetic testing
    chorionic villus biopsy
  10. equal phenotypic expression by heterozygous genes at a particular locus
    codominance
  11. triplets of adjacent nucleotides that code for one of the 20 amino acids
    codons
  12. the sub-discipline of bioinformatics that deals with analyzing nucleotide sequences in DNA
    computational biology
  13. genetically related individuals who parent offspring together
    consanguineous
  14. the study of the chromosomal composition of cells
    cytogenetics
  15. containing two complete sets of 23 pairs of chromosomes
    diploid
  16. the double nucleotide coil of desoxyribose polynucleotide that forms the genome
    DNA
  17. genes whose traits are always expressed if they are inherited
    dominant genes
  18. the structural portion of DNA consisting of genes that code for amino acid sequences that form proteins
    exons
  19. abnormal proliferation of nucleotides flanking genes on the X chromosome that produce mental handicap and muscle weakness
    fragile x syndrome
  20. the basic unit of heredity; the sequence of DNA that encodes all the information to make a protein
    gene
  21. microarrays of genes
    gene chips
  22. the trait that is exhibited by genes inherited at a particular locus
    gene expression
  23. databases of the locations and functions of the genes of specific organisms that are published on the Internet
    gene libraries
  24. genes whose locus and phenotype are known
    gene markers
  25. a disruption in the correct sequence of genetic base pairs that may be transferred to daughter cells during mitosis or meiosis
    genetic mutation
  26. the haploid set of an organism's chromosomes including all of their genes
    genome
  27. the process of sequencing sets of genes and/or the entire genome of organisms using techniques of genetics and molecular biology to organize and apply the information
    genomics
  28. the specific gene or gene sequence that determines a specific trait or group of traits exhibited by a cell or organism
    genotype
  29. mutations in gametes that persist and are transferred during meiosis to zygotes therefore affecting all daughter cells
    germ line mutation
  30. containing one of each pair of 23 chromosomes
    haploid
  31. the single set of genes that males acquire from their mother's X chromosome
    hemizygous
  32. having different alleles at the two chromosomal loci of a gene site
    heterozygous
  33. water soluble proteins that complex with and stabilize DNA
    histones
  34. having the same allele at both chromosomal loci of a gene site
    homozygous
  35. the fifteen year-long international collaborative research project that has determined the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome
    human genome project
  36. non-coding DNA that separates exons on the genome
    introns
  37. the chromosomal complement of normal human cells consisting of 22 pairs of autosomes or non sex chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes, XX for females and XY for males, totaling 46 chromosomes
    karyotype
  38. the qualitative process of creating linkage maps
    linkage analysis
  39. maps of the relative position of genes to one another based on how frequently genes or gene markers segregate together
    linkage maps
  40. the linear position of each gene on each chromosome
    locus
  41. the cell division process that occurs in reproductive tissue producing haploid reproductive cells called gametes
    meiosis
  42. two dimensional spatially-oriented sets of DNA, genes, gene fragments, or proteins from genes mounted on a solid substance
    microarrays
  43. nuclear and chromosomal splitting during cell division that results in the formation of two daughter cells with essentially the same genetic complement as the parent cell
    mitosis
  44. 45 chromosome aneuploidy with a single chromosome of one pair
    monosomy
  45. the complementary nucleotide sequence copied from genetic DNA that codes for the amino acid sequence of proteins
    mRNA
  46. substances and energy sources that cause genetic mutations
    mutagens
  47. failure of chromosomes to separate and move into different cells resulting in aneuploidy in daughter cells
    nondisjunction
  48. DNA subunits consisting of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group and either a purine or pyrimidine base group
    nucleotide
  49. short nucleotide sequences that are used in PCR and as complementary genetic probes to identify specific gene sequences
    oligonucleotides
  50. a chart that illustrates the phenotypes of families for traits of interest permitting analysis of the mode of genetic inheritance
    pedigree
  51. the study of how genetic variations among populations affect drug response
    pharmacogenomics
  52. the observed physical or functional condition of a cell or organism as a consequence of its genotype
    phenotype
  53. more precise maps of the sequence of exons on DNA
    physical map
  54. the process by which minute quantities of DNA are copied and amplified ten thousand- to ten million-fold while preserving their original nucleotide sequence
    polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  55. the property of having multiple alternative genetic sequences at a particular position
    polymorphism
  56. any aneuploidy in which there are more than two copies of every chromosome in a cell
    polyploidy
  57. each trait is inherited by offspring from their parents independently of other traits
    principle of independent assortment
  58. the traits of offspring do not mix and are inherited from both parents, each contributing an equal quantity of genetic material
    principle of segregation
  59. gene sites that, when activated by the binding of regulator proteins, initiate transcription of specific mRNA sequences
    promoters
  60. chains of amino acids whose type and order are determined by the genetic code in the cellular DNA forming structural elements and regulators of cell growth and function
    protein
  61. the collection of all exons or protein coding genes in the genome of a cell
    proteome
  62. The study of genetically directed protein expression under defined conditions
    proteomics
  63. genes whose traits are only expressed if the locus for that trait is homozygous for the recessive gene
    recessive genes
  64. genes that produce protein products that bind to another gene locus inhibiting or activating gene expression at that locus
    regulator genes
  65. enzymes that recognize specific sequences of nucleotides and cleave strands of DNA into fragments wherever those sequences occur
    restriction endonucleases
  66. any genetic polymorphism flanked by potential sites of cleavage by restriction endonucleases that contains a target sequence of genetic material of interest in between
    restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)
  67. single nucleotide sequences of ribose nucleotide that mediate protein synthesis
    RNA
  68. genetic inheritance on sex (X or Y) chromosomes
    sex linked
  69. an acquired mutation
    somatic mutation
  70. one of a family of enzymes that amplify DNA when heated
    taq polymerase
  71. 92 chromosome aneuploidy with four chromosomes instead of a pair of each of the 23 chromosomes
    tetraploidy
  72. the process of copying genes from DNA into complementary sequences of RNA called messenger or mRNA during protein synthesis
    transcription
  73. protein synthesis that occurs when tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes interact to produce amino acid sequences
    translation
  74. 69 chromosome aneuploidy with three chromosomes instead of a pair of each of the 23 chromosomes
    triploidy
  75. 47 chromosome aneuploidy with three chromosomes instead of two of any one of the 23 chromosomal pairs
    trisomy
  76. single stranded RNA with a complementary codon on one end and a binding site for the corresponding amino acid on the other end that align amino acids during translation
    tRNA

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