Micropalaeoforam

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Author:
Twigley
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88585
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Micropalaeoforam
Updated:
2011-06-04 17:34:52
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Foraminifera pg142
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A set of cards based on Microfossils by Brasier (pg 142-152) - to help with foram stuff.
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  1. In forams what is ectoplasm?
    Ectoplasm is the thin outer layer of the foraminiferan cell, it envelopes/is outside of the test.
  2. What are foram pseudopodia?
    Pseudopodia are extentions of ectoplasm which form arms or branches outside the test.
  3. What do foraminifera eat? How do they obtain their food?
    Forams eat small organisms and organic matter which they collect with their sticky pseudopodia.
  4. Name five things a foram might eat.
    • 1. micro molluscs
    • 2. invertebrate larvae
    • 3. nematodes
    • 4. bacteria
    • 5. other single celled protists.
    • 6. micro crustaceans (i.e ostracods)
  5. The larger forams tend to live where in the water column, what is this life habit called?
    On the seafloor/sediment surface which is a benthic life habit.
  6. Name 2 factors which make planktonic forams good for biostratigraphic correlation.
    Any two of:

    • 1. Since the mesozoic (Cretaceous) planktic forams have developed many rapidly evolving lineages.
    • 2. Many planktonic forams have a wide geographical range.

    3. With a trained eye many planktic forams are morphologically distinctive/clearly identifiable.

  7. In forams what does the term unilocular refer to?
    A unilocular test has a single chamber.
  8. In forams what does the term multilocular refer to?
    • A multilocular test has many chambers.
  9. Which type of foram is this?
    Elphidium.
  10. What is the protein that some forams incorporate into their test called?
    Tectin
  11. What does the term uniclocular mean?
    Unilocular refers to a foram test with only one/a single chamber.
  12. What does the term multilocular mean?
    Multilocular refers to a foram test with multiple/more than one chamber/s.
  13. What is the opening to the foram test called?
    The foramen. This is where forams get their name from.
  14. What life habits do forams generally adopt?
    Benthic and planktonic.
  15. How big are the biggest forams known living or fossil - (answer to within 20mm.)
    Some mesozoic tethyan forams are up to 180mm across - making them the largest single celled organisms known.
  16. What two terms describe differing morphology of foram pseudopodia?
    Granular and reticulose.
  17. Is this test multilaminar? What is A?
    The test is multilaminar.


    Structure A is a cryptolamellar lamina. So named as all lamellae making it up are so fine as to be invisible/hidden or 'cryptic'.
  18. What are structures A-E. Is this a non-laminar foram test?
    Yes, this test is non laminar - each chamber is encased by a single layered shell. This is because as the shell developed unlike laminar forams each chamber simply built out onto the previous. cf laminar forams.

    • A- Aperture
    • B - Chamber
    • C - Septum
    • D - Foramen
    • E - Proloculus
  19. What is A? What is B? What is B used for?
    • A is a cryptolamellar lamina.
    • B is a Rotaliid canal which is a pathway along which cytolplasm (ecto/endoplasm) can move during chamber construction or reproduction.
  20. What type of lamina is A?
    What type of lamina is B?
    • A is a bilamellar lamina
    • B is a monolamellar lamina
  21. Which two aspects of chamber addition are specific to the Rotaliina?
    First is the Rotaliid canal - labelled 'B' here. Also is the tendency for new chambers to build up or 'coat' the septa of previous chambers (look just above 'B'). These are called Septal flaps.
  22. What are septal flaps?
    Septal flaps are overgrowths of chambers which coat the septa of chambers beneath them. Seen in the suborder Rotaliina.
  23. Which foram genus is this? To which order does it belong?
    Ammodiscus

    Class Textulariida
  24. Which foram genus is this? To which order/superfamily does it belong?
    Ammonia

    Order Rotaliida/superfamily Rotaliacia
  25. Which foram genus is this? What order does it belong to?
    Bolivina

    Order Rotaliida/Superfamily Buliminacea
  26. Which foram genus is this, which order/superfamily does it belong to?
    Carterina

    Order Carterinida, family Carterinidae.

    NB. Carterina is the only member of this group - based on its test structure.
  27. Which foram genus is this, which order/superfamily does it belong to?
    Cibicides

    Order Rotaliida, Superfamily Planorbulinoidea
  28. Which foram genus is this, which order/family does it belong to?
    Dentalina

    Order Lagenida, family nodosariidae
  29. Which foram genus is this, which order/family does it belong to?
    Elphidium

    Order Rotaliida, family Elphidiidae
  30. Which foram genus is this, which order/superfamily does it belong to?
    Globigerinoides

    Order Globigerinida, superfamily Globigerinacea.
  31. Which foram genus is this, which order/superfamily does it belong to?
    Globigerinoides

    Order Globigerinida, superfamily Globigerinacea.
  32. Which foram genus is this, which order does it belong to?
    Milamellus

    Order Silicoloculinida.
  33. Which foram genus is this, which order/family does it belong to?
    Miliolinella

    Order miliolida, family Hauerinidae
  34. Which foram genus is this, which order does it belong to?
    Planispirillina

    Order Involutiniida.

  35. Which foram genus is this, which order/family does it belong to?
    Robertinoides

    Order Robertinida, family Robertinidae
  36. Which foram genus is this, which order/family does it belong to?
    Saccammina

    Astrorhizida (Order) Saccaminidae (Family)
  37. Which foram genus is this, which order/family does it belong to?
    Siphotextularia

    Textulariida (Order), Textulariidae (Family)
  38. Which foram genus is this, which order/family does it belong to?
    Spirillina

    Spirillinida (Order), Spirillinidae (Family).
  39. Which Kingdom or Division of the linnaen hierarchy does the phylum Foraminifera fall under?
    The Protista/Protoctista.
  40. The foram life cycle consists of an a____________ of g________________.
    alternation; generations.
  41. The Foram gamont generation reproduces ______________
    Sexually.
  42. Sexual reproduction occurs in which generation in forams?
    The gamont generation.
  43. Asexual reproduction is the mode in which foraminferan generation?
    The Agamount generation.
  44. Agamont forams reproduce_________________
    Asexually.
  45. Read the sequence of events below. Put them into the correct order. Which generation of forams is this the reproductive cycle of?

    Reproductive cycle of ________________ forams.

    1. Chamber formation begins in the new generation.
    2. Muliple fission occurs - a number of haploid daughter cells are produced.
    3. The young are dispersed.
    4. Withdrawal of cytoplasm (ectoplasm) into the test.
    The correct order was: 4, 2, 3, 1. The passage is below.

    Reproductive cycle of Agamont forams.

    • 4. Withdrawal of cytoplasm (ectoplasm) into the test.
    • 2. Muliple fission (meiosis) occurs - a number of haploid daughter cells (containing half the number of chromosomes of the diploid parent) are produced.
    • 3. The young are dispersed.
    • 1. Chamber formation begins in the new generation.
  46. Read the sequence of events below. Put them into the correct order. Which generation of forams is this the reproductive cycle of?

    Reproductive cycle of ___________ forams

    1. Reproductive cells are released and unite/fuse.
    2. A diploid cell results. This grows into an adult with a full, diploid number of chromosomes.
    3. Cytoplasm splits into reproductive cells, each retaining a haploid number of chromosomes.
    4. Withdrawal of cytoplasm (ectoplasm) into test.
    The correct order was 4, 3, 1, 2. The passage is below

    Reproductive cycle of gamont forams

    • 4. Withdrawal of cytoplasm (ectoplasm) into test.
    • 3. Cytoplasm splits (mitotically) into reproductive cells (gametes), each retaining a haploid number of chromosomes (mitosis conserves chromosome number).
    • 1. Reproductive cells (gametes) are released and unite/fuse.
    • 2. A diploid cell (zygote) results. This grows into an adult with a full, diploid number of chromosomes.
  47. After sexually reproducing - what do gamont forams do?
    Usually the test is left empty, the adult has disintigrated entirely through meiosis.
  48. What does the term trimorphic refer to?
    • In some larger benthic forams the Agamont as well as producing haploid 'young gamonts' reproduced asexually to produce other diploid forams. These are termed schizonts.
    • As the forams have three seperate adult forms they are no dimorphic. But trimorphic.
  49. What is a proloculus?
    The proloculus is the large initial chamber of the gamont in some smaller benthic forams.
  50. Match these:
    1. Megalospheric
    2. Microspheric
    &
    A. Gamont
    B. Agamont
    &
    x. Large proloculus
    y.
    Large test

    Which forams are these terms relevant for?
    This is most relevant to smaller benthic foraminfera.

    • The matches are:
    • 1, Megalospheric B, Agamont x, Large proloculus (relative to test).
    • 2, Microspheric A, Gamont y, Large test (relative to proloculus).
    • Remember the terms megalospheric and microspheric actually refer to the size of the proloculus.
  51. Label structures A-E
    • A- Aperture,
    • B- Nucleus,
    • C- Mitochondrion/a
    • D - Test
    • E - Ectoplasm
  52. This diagram shows the foram life cycle. Label the names of the organisms at each stage...
    • A- Zygote
    • B - Agamont
    • C - Young
    • D - Schizont
    • E - Gamont
    • F - Gametes
  53. The diagram shows some examples of one group of microstructures observed in foram tests. Can you name the test type, and the group/s of forams with which it is associated?

    This is a tectinous shell, associated with the Allogromiida.
  54. The diagram shows some examples of one group of microstructures observed
    in foram tests. Can you name the test type, and the group/s of forams
    with which it is associated?
    This is an agglutinated test associated with the textulariids.
  55. The diagram shows some examples of one group of microstructures observed
    in foram tests. Can you name the test type, and the group/s of forams
    with which it is associated?
    This is a porcelaneous test associated with the Milioliids.
  56. The diagram shows some examples of one group of microstructures observed
    in foram tests. Can you name the test type, and the group/s of forams
    with which it is associated?
    This is one of the many types of microgranular tests developed by various groups of forams. This style is chracteristic of the Fusuliniids. Note the pore style, and dense crystal packing.
  57. The diagram shows some examples of one group of microstructures observed
    in foram tests. Can you name the test type, and the group/s of forams
    with which it is associated?
    These are the advanced microgranular tests. Note the more complex pore structures. These diagrams represent structures observed in many groups of forams - Globeriginiids, Spirilliniids, Involutiniids, and Robertiniids. Similar structures have arisen in other groups too, including more derived members of the Textulariida.
  58. The diagram shows some examples of one group of microstructures observed in foram tests. Can you name the test type, and the group/s of forams with which it is associated?
    These are examples of Hyaline tests which are often glassy in appearance. The Rotaliida utilise this test type.
  59. What structures facilitate the osmosis of gases and the flow of cytoplasm through test walls? Name two.
    • -The alvioli in aggluntinates (textilariids).
    • -The mural pores in many microgranular tests (i.e globigeriniids, fusiliniids).
    • - Radial pores in perforate hyaline tests (rotaliids).
  60. Forams can live for;
    Several days.
    Several months.
    Several years.

    Their close relatives - the testate amoebae generally live longer or shorter lives?
    Forams live at least 1 month and some several years.

    Testate amoebae live only a few days.

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