BioConcepts - Immune

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BioConcepts - Immune
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2011-05-31 16:47:05
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BioConcepts Immune
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BioConcepts - Immune
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  1. immune processes that develop after birth
    acquired immunity
  2. exposing susceptible individuals to antigens associated with an infectious disease process that do not cause the disease but rather induce an immune response that protects against subsequent infection
    active immunization
  3. soluble reactive immunoglobulins that circulate in the bloodstream
    antibodies
  4. a hypersensitivity reaction mediated by a sub-population of B-lymphocytes resulting in antigen-specific cell destruction
    antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity
  5. phagocytic white blood cells that non-specifically engulf foreign substances and then process and present them to lymphocytes
    antigen presenting cells (APC's)
  6. a portion of an antigen capable of eliciting an immune response
    antigenic determinant
  7. agents that specifically bind to the immune system but may or may not elicit an immune response
    antigens
  8. antibody-producing white blood cells that develop in the bone marrow and mediate humoral immunity
    B-lymphocytes
  9. highly vascular connective tissue in the cavities of most bones that is the site where red and white blood cells develop from precursor cells called stem cells
    bone marrow
  10. large molecules like proteins that complex with haptens making them immunogenic
    carriers
  11. cytokine production or cell destruction mediated by T-lymphocytes that is activated when antigen presenting cells (APC's) present processed antigen to the T-lymphocyte receptor(s)
    cellular immunity
  12. attraction of immune cells to a specific location by a chemical signal
    chemotaxis
  13. the subgroup of an immunoglobulin determined by its heavy chain(s) that also defines type of cell receptor(s) that is (are) bound
    class
  14. theory proposing that diverse populations of lymphocytes capable of reacting to all foreign antigens coupled with selective elimination of clones of immune cells that react to "self" antigens results in a diverse and adaptive system of immunologic defense
    clonal selection theory
  15. a family of biologically-active proteins associated with non-specific immune responses that mediate cell destruction and elements of the immune response
    complement
  16. the sequences of amino acids on the H and L chains of immunoglobulin molecules that are the same among different antibodies; the constant region of the H chains forms the cell receptor binding portion of an immunoglobulin molecule
    constant region
  17. low molecular weight, soluble, antigen-nonspecific glycoproteins produced by a variety of cells that stimulate proliferation, differentiation, and activation of cells of the immune system
    cytokines
  18. foreign antigens that are processed by and then expressed on the surface of cells that have been invaded by intracellular pathogens such as viruses
    endogenous antigens
  19. an antigenic determinant
    epitope
  20. antigens on the surface of foreign cells such as bacteria that are engulfed by APC's, processed, and then presented to helper T cells resulting in the production of cytokines
    exogenous antigens
  21. the class of immunoglobulins consisting of a single Ig subunit with gamma heavy chains that is the predominant antibody in the circulation and mediates anamnestic immune reactions, ADCC, complement-mediated cell destruction, and opsonization
    gamma globulin (IgG)
  22. heavy polypeptide chains of antibodies that pair with L chains to form a functional immunoglobulin molecule. The constant end binds to an isotype-specific receptor site of T cells at one end and the variable end on the opposite pole of the immunoglobulin molecule pairs with L chains and binds specifically to antigen on target cells
    H chains
  23. non-immunogenic, low molecular weight substances that bind to antibodies and T-lymphocyte receptors
    haptens
  24. a subpopulation of T lymphocytes that produce cytokines in response to presentation of antigen(s) by APC's
    helper T cells
  25. immune response that occurs in body fluids involving antibodies and the B-lymphocytes that produce them
    humoral immunity
  26. mechanisms used by the body to protect itself from foreign environmental agents such as infectious organisms, toxins, chemicals, and components or products of other living things
    immunity
  27. the induction of immunity against a specific infectious disease
    immunization
  28. agents that contact the immune system eliciting an immune response
    immunogens
  29. a one or two subunit immunoglobulin that respectively circulates in the blood stream or is present in epithelial cell secretions that agglutinates foreign proteins and cells along mucous membranes
    immunoglobulin A (IgA)
  30. a one immunoglobulin subunit molecule that defines the antigenic specificity and is a major surface marker on B-lymphocytes
    immunoglobulin D (IgD)
  31. a single subunit immunoglobulin present in the smallest quantities and with the shortest half life that binds to mast cells and basophils to mediate a variety of hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis
    immunoglobulin E (IgE)
  32. globular proteins that circulate in body fluids and specifically bind to antigens and immunogens
    immunoglobulins (Igs)
  33. the body's response to tissue invasion and/or damage
    inflammation
  34. immune processes present at birth
    innate immunity
  35. an enzyme produced by retroviruses, including HIV, that catalyzes the insertion into the host cell genome of viral DNA that has been transcribed by reverse transcriptase from viral RNA
    integrase
  36. the immunoglobulin class
    isotype
  37. alteration in the class of antigen-specific antibody produced by a B-lymphocyte mediated by both antigen stimulation and cytokines
    isotype (class) switching
  38. a subclass of T-lymphocytes that, when activated by endogenous antigens, destroys cells that express those antigens
    killer T cells
  39. light polypeptide chains of antibodies that pair with H chains to form the pole of a functional immunoglobulin molecule that specifically binds to antigens and immunogens
    L chains
  40. tissue composed of cells of the immune system along lymphatic channels that connect to the blood stream where both mature B- and T-lymphocytes destroy foreign substances and infectious agents
    lymph nodes
  41. sites where cells of the immune system develop and function
    lymphoid organs
  42. cytokines that are exclusively produced by lymphocytes
    lymphokines
  43. the first class of antibody produced during immune response composed of five immunoglobulin subunits, each with a mu heavy chain, bound together in a pentameric ring
    macroglobulin (IgM)
  44. a group of tightly-linked genes on chromosome 6 that define "self" antigens and determine tissue or organ graft compatibility, resulting in acceptance or rejection following transplantation
    major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
  45. mucosa-associated lymphocyte tissue such as tonsils and Peyer's patches under the small bowel that serve as secondary lymphoid organs to detect and eliminate foreign antigens coming in contact with mucosal epithelial surfaces
    MALT
  46. the requirement that immune cells share the same MHC or "self" antigens in order to interact and immunologically respond together
    MHC restriction
  47. immune responsiveness mediated at epithelial mucosal surfaces, often involving IgA
    mucosal immunity
  48. a cancer of B-lymphocytes that causes these cells to produce huge quantities of immunoglobulin fragments
    multiple myeloma
  49. binding of substances such as antibodies to epitopes on cells that make the cells more susceptible to phagocytosis
    opsonization
  50. transfer of protective antibody from an immune to a susceptible individual providing protection from disease for a period of time defined by the duration of antibody persistence
    passive immunization
  51. molecules produced by cytotoxic cells that bind to the plasma membrane of target cells creating large channels that alter selective membrane permeability and cause cell death
    perforins
  52. sites where cells of the immune system develop and mature including the bone marrow and thymus gland
    primary lymphoid organs
  53. an enzyme produced by retroviruses including HIV that synthesizes DNA from templates of viral RNA nucleotide sequences
    reverse transcriptase
  54. sites where mature cells of the immune system encounter, trap, and destroy foreign substances as they invade the body, including the spleen, lymph nodes, and MALT
    secondary lymphoid organs
  55. highly vascular organ consisting of blood sinuses and connective tissue where both mature B- and T-lymphocytes destroy foreign damaging agents and substances
    spleen
  56. a gland in most vertebrate animals in the upper anterior chest or base of the neck where T-cells migrate to mature
    thymus gland
  57. white blood cells that develop in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus that mediate cellular immunity
    T-lymphocytes
  58. modified, immunogenic but harmless toxins that induce protective immunity from the effects of subsequent toxin exposure
    toxoids
  59. induction of immune protection by exposing organisms to infectious agents that have been treated to substantially reduce or eliminate their ability to cause damage or disease
    vaccination
  60. groups of antigens of an infectious agent
    vaccines
  61. the sequences of amino acids on the H and L chains of immunoglobulin molecules that vary among different antibodies; this region forms the antigen-binding portion of the immunoglobulin
    variable region

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