Research, Planning, Implementation and Evaluation

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Kristabell
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88636
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Research, Planning, Implementation and Evaluation
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2011-07-10 13:39:06
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PR Research
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Definitions for PR research terms.
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  1. Definition: A bar chart that shows the visual and linear direction of project tasks useful for tracking deadlines and monitoring a project's progress, as well as planning and scheduling tasks
    Gantt Chart
  2. People or groups of people who are mutually involved or interdependent with an organization.
    Publics
  3. Each person in a large group has an equal chance of being chosen
    Random Sample
  4. Process of evaluating concepts, design, plan, implementation and effectiveness of a program. Used to learn what happened and why it happened.
    Evaluation Research
  5. An expression of an attitude. Public opinion is the composite of all the people who make up a public.
    Opinion
  6. Gathering information for use in making decisions prior to a program or making adjustments in a program / plan during implementation
    Formative Research
  7. Research that is somewhat subjective, using a problem or open-ended, free-response format to investigate the value of programs or probe other questions, usually informal
    Qualitative Research
  8. A method used to ensure that a survey sample contains representatives of each subset in the population being studied, according to the proportion of their representation in the universe
    Proportional Sampling
  9. A brief summary of the problem written in present tense, describing the situation
    Problem Statement
  10. Individuals whose opinions are sought in a survey, broad or focused
    Population
  11. Research that can be numerically stated or compared; may use statistical standards; highly objective and projectable; uses closed-end or forced-choice questions.
    Quantitative Research
  12. Less expensive quantitative research method involving piggybacking some questions on a research company's poll. Also called subscription studies.
    Omnibus Survey or Study
  13. Quantitative research. Uses principles of scientific investigation such as the rules of empirical observation, random sampling in surveys, comparison of results against statistical standards, in order to replicate results. Can be replicated.
    Formal Research
  14. Collecting information that describes existing conditions, the status quo of individuals, group opinions, attitude or behavior. Usually designed to test a theory or hypothesis
    Descriptive Research
  15. A complete analysis of an organization's communication processes, both internal and external. Designed to reveal how an organization wants to be percieved be designated publics, what it is doing to foster that perception and how it is actually percieved.
    Communications Audit
  16. Data colected before or at the beginning of a project or program. The data will be compared to data collected during and after program implementation in order to assess program effectiveness.
    Baseline Data
  17. Measure of tools, tactics or activities supporting a plan or project.
    Outputs
  18. Investigation or data collected first-hand; or by a third party contracted specifically for the firsthand party. Research you do yourself. Examples: nes interviews, observations, paper surveys
    Primary Research
  19. The key result that must be achieved with each public to reach the program goal. Specific milestones that measure progress toward achievement of a goal.
    Objective
  20. Broad target for an end result. Statement that spells out the overall outsomes of a program, usually more specific expression of a mission or purpose that is directly related to the problem or opportunity at hand. Always consistent with management goals.
    Goal
  21. What are the Four things that objectives include:
    • 1. Address desired result in terms of opinion change and/or behavioral outcome, not in terms of communication output.
    • 2. Designate target audience.
    • 3. Specifiy the expected level of accomplishment.
    • Identify time frame for these accomplishments to occur.
  22. What questions are answered in a problem statement?
    • 1. What is the source of concern?
    • 2. What is the problem?
    • 3. When is it a problem?
    • 4. Who it involves or affects?
    • 5. How are they involved or affected?
    • 6. Why is this a concern to the organization and its publics
  23. An inclination, often unconscious, to behave in a givenway as a result of a spectrum of information, values, beliefs, experiences and persuasive messages.
    Attitude
  24. A study of publications, print and electronic media reports, speeches and letters to measure, codify, analyze and/or evaluate the coverage of an organization, its people and its activities.
    Content Analysis
  25. Comparison of one's products and services to those of competitors or those recognized as the "best in the industry" to identify standards for improvement or surperior performance.
    Benchmarking
  26. Measurable result of change in action, attitude, awareness, behavior, opinion and/or support.
    Outcomes
  27. Collecting information that exists on the record, including historic documents, personal papers, journals, official records, etc.
    Historical research
  28. The overarching reason why an organization came into the existence and exists; a visionary statement that can guide an organization's purpose and planning for many years.
    Mission/Mission Statement
  29. Explores values or qualities; subjective. Deals with content. Needs good notes, thoroughness. Examples: focus groups, informal surveys.
    Informal Research
  30. The extent to which a survey, test or measuring procedure yields the same results on repeated trials.
    Reliability
  31. Used to clearly determine why the organization should conduct a particular PR program at a particular.
    Opportunity Research / Problem Research
  32. A problem-solving approach that gives planners a visual image of a problem by breaking the problem into rogressively smaller parts. By examining factors that contribute to the problem, information relating to the problem and questions raised by the problem, communication experts can identify best solutions to respond to the many parts of a problem.
    Drill-Down Technique
  33. Helps managers analyze a particular problem by thinking through the reasons a problem exists. Also known as Fishbone Diagrams.
    Cause and Effect Diagrams
  34. The exact tools and activities used at the operational level. Specific ways to implement strategy
    Tactics/Tools
  35. Involves predicting or establishing a desired future state; formulating a strategy for achieving the desired state.
    Strategic Thinking
  36. Four-Step PR Plan Process
    • ROPE: Research, Objectives, Programming, Evaluation
    • or
    • RACE: Research, Analysis/Planning/Action, Communication, Evaluation
  37. Differences among people within a group, stemming from variations in factors such as age, gender, religion, sexual preference, education, etc.
    Diversity
  38. Refers to the degree to which a research study accurately assesses what the researcher set out to measure.
    Validity
  39. Gathering information as a way of monitoring a program to document the effectivenessof the whole program or its parts.
    Summative Research
  40. Uses research findings of others, or collects information secondhand. Previously reported/published information. Example: US Census research
    Secondary research
  41. Sometimes used to refer to investors, but included others who have invested time, job seniority, commitment to the organization or otherwise depenent on an organization in a sense other than financial. A person or group wth a stake or interest.
    Stakeholder
  42. A portion of a larger whole; in polling, a relatively small group of individuals selected to represent a population, usually by means of random probability sampling techiniques that allows for the calculation of the exact probability of such represenatation
    Sample
  43. In crisis PR planning, the determination of the chance of various occurrences in order to take steps to handle such incidents in the order of their probability.
    Risk Assessment
  44. Systematic gathering of information for the purpose of describing and understanding situations and checking out assumptions about public and PR consequences. It helps define the problem.
    Research
  45. Information pulled together to define a situation (e.g. history, factors affecting a situation, people involved, etc.) Contains all information needed to write a problem statement.
    Situational Analysis
  46. Unabridged collection of all that is known about situation, its history, forces operating on it and those involved or affected interally and externally. Contains all the background information needed to expand upon and illustrate in details the meaning of a problem.
    Scientific Method
  47. The process of measuring, or assessing risk and developing strategies to manage it
    Risk Management
  48. In polling, a person who participates in a survey or poll by answering questions
    Respondent
  49. All the resources and users on the Internet that are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The World Wide Web is as the universe of network-accessible information, an embodiment of human knowledge.
    World Wide Web
  50. Used to investigate audiences or publics. The process includes identifying audeiences, targeting and obtaining desired data.
    Audience Research
  51. 1. What's happening now
    2. Where is it of concern
    3. What's the source of concern
    4. When is it a concern
    5. Who's involved in the affects
    6. How it involves/affects
    7. Why it concerns an organization and its publics
    7 Sepcs for Research Statement
  52. Strategy takes form of a systematic plan and guidelines for achieving corporate and business level strategies. Usually the preferred mode.
    Planning mode.
  53. Uses open systems approach rather than closed system reactive approach. Process that enables any organization, company, association, nonprofit or government agancy to identify its long-term opportunities and threats, mobilize its assets to address them and carry outa successful implementation strategy.
    Stategic Management
  54. Before researching situation, practitioners and others on management team brainstorm the negative forces contributing to or causing the problem as well as positive forces alleviating the problem or solving.
    Force Field Analysis
  55. MBO. Well established procedure that involves cooperative goal setting by groups of superiors and subordinates in the employee hierarchy. Also called MOR: management by objectives and results
    Management by Objectives
  56. Summarizes what is learned about the problem situation. Written in present tense, describes in specific and measurable terms (who, what, when, where, why and how) and doesn't imply solution or place blame. Describes current situation, not future.
    Problem Statement
  57. In PR, it involves making decisions about program goals and objectives, identifying key publics, setting policies or rules to guide selection or strategies and determining strategies. Strategies are selected to achieve a particular outcome (as stated in goal or objective).
    Strategic Planning
  58. Strategies develop over time, representing a pattern of decisions that respond to opportunities and threats in the environment. This mode is increasingly accepted as the appropriate approach for dealing with rapidly changing organizational environments.
    Evolutionary Mode
  59. Finer details of tactics (dates, indicate who is in charge, attendance expected, etc.)
    Activities
  60. 1. Goals
    2. Target audiences/publics
    3.Objectives
    4. Strategies
    5.Tactics
    6. Activities
    7. Evaluation
    8. Materials
    9. Budget
    10. Timetable task list
    10-Step Communication/PR Plan
  61. Items you need to implement or execute tactics
    Materials
  62. 1. Total income/funds available (PR is generally allocated a % that relates to the organization's total operating budget)
    2. Competitive necessity (amout spent by a similar charity or organization is matched or exceeded).
    3. Task/goal (usually provides for PR to have a share of funding set aside desired end result.)
    4. Profit/surplus over expenses (can go up or down depending on break even point or point where all costs covered.)
    4 Control Factors in Budgeting
  63. 1. Credibility
    2. Context
    3. Content
    4. Clarity
    5. Continuity/Consistency
    6. Channels
    7. Capability of audience
    7 C's of Public Relations Communication
  64. Acronym to Help Practitioners Set Program Objectives
    SMART

    • Specific
    • Measurable
    • Attainable
    • Realistic
    • Timely
  65. How to measure objectives. Measurement, observation, opinion, feedback
    Evaluation
  66. Includes: staff time, materials, out-of-pocket costs, images, transportation, volunteer energy and fabrication
    Budget
  67. Who does what/when

    Work backward from deadline or forward from start date
    Timetable/ Task List
  68. 1. All-issue
    2. Apathetic
    3. Single-issue
    4. Hot-issue
    4 Types of Publics
  69. This decision-making tools helps to assess where power and weakness lie and assumes that there are five important forces that affect competition: supllier power, power buyer, competitive rivalry, threat of substitution and threat of new energy.
    Porter's Five Forces
  70. Detailed analysis of interal.external factors in problem situation to provide practioner with information needed to assess organization.
    • SWOT Analysis:
    • Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats
  71. A method used to ensure that a survey sample contains representatives of each subset in the population being studied, accoridng to the proportion of their representation in the universe.
    Proportional Sampling
  72. Research that is somewhat subjective, using a problem or open-mineded, free-response format to investigate the value of programs or probe other questions, usually informal.
    Qualitative Research
  73. Gathering information for use in making decisions prior to a program or making adjustments in a program/plan during implementation.
    Formative Research
  74. An expression of an attitude. Public opinion is the composite of all people who make up a public.
    Opinion
  75. Process of evaluating concepts, design, plan, implementative and effectiveness or a program. Used to learn what happened and why it happened.
    Evaluation Research
  76. Each person in a large group has an equal chance of being chosen.
    Random Sample.
  77. People or groups of people who are mutually involved or interdependent with an organization
    Publics
  78. A bar chart that shows the visual ad linear direction of project tasks useful for tracking deadlines and monitoring a project's progress, as well as for planning and scheduling tasks.
    Gantt Chart
  79. Overall game plan. The overall concept, approach or general plan for the program designed to achieve the objectives. General, wel-thought-out tactical plans flow from strategy. Strategies do not indicate specific actions to achieve objectives. There can be multiple strategies for ach objectives.
    Strategy
  80. Measurable result of change in action, attitude, awareness, behavior, opinion and/or support.
    Outcomes
  81. Collecting information that exists on the record, including historic documents, personal papers, journals, official records, etc.
    Historical research
  82. The overarching reason why an organization came into existence and exists; a visionary statement that can guide an organization's purpose and planning for many years
    MIssion/Mission Statement
  83. Explores values or qualities; subjective. Deals with content. Needs good notes, thoroughness. Examples: Focus groups, informal surveys
    Informal Research
  84. In polling, a person who participates in a survey or poll by answering questions.
    Respondent
  85. Used to clearly determine why the organization should conduct a particular PR program at a particular time.
    Opportunity Research / Problem Research
  86. The extent to which a survey, test or measuring procedure yields the same results on repeated trials.
    Reliability
  87. A complete analysis of an organization's communications processes, both internal and external. Designed to reveal how an organization wants to be perceived by designated publics, what it is doing to foster that perception and how it is actually perceived.
    Communications Audit
  88. Data collected before or at the beginning of a project or program. The data will be compared to data collected during and after program implementation in order to assess program effectiveness.
    Baseline Data
  89. Measure of tools, tactics or activities supporting a plan or project
    Outputs
  90. Investigation or data collected first-hand; or by a third party contracted specifically for the firsthand party. Research you do yourself. Examples: news interviews, observations, paper surveys
    Primary Research
  91. The key result that must be acheived with each public to reach the program goal. Specific milestones that measure progress toward acheivement of a goal.
    Objective
  92. Broad target for an end result. Statement that spells out the overall outcomes of a program, usually a more specific expression of a mission or purpose that is directly related to the problem or opportunity at hand. Always consistent with management goals.
    Goal
  93. Four things objectives should include
    • 1. Address desired result in terms of opinion change and/or behavioral outcome, not in terms of communication output.
    • 2. Designate target audience
    • 3. Specify the expected level of accomplishment
    • 4. Identify the time frame for these accomplishments to occur.
  94. Questions answered in a problem statement
    • 1. What is the source of concern?
    • 2. Where is it a problem?
    • 3. When is it a problem?
    • 4. Who it involves or affects?
    • 5. How are they involved or affected?
    • 6. Why is this a concern to the organization and its publics?
  95. A study of publications, print and electronic media reports, speeches, and letters to measure, codify, analyze and/or evaluate the coverage of an organization, its people and its activities.
    Content Analysis
  96. Comparison of one's products and services to those of competitors or those recognized as the "best in the industry" to identify standards for the improvement or superior performance.
    Benchmarking
  97. A brief summary of the problem written in present tense, describing the situation
    Problem Statement
  98. Quantitative research. Uses principles of scientificinvestigation such as the rules of empirical observation, random sampling in surveys, comparison of results against statistical standards, in order to replicate results. Can be replicated.
    Formal Research
  99. Less expensive quantitative research method involving piggybacking some questions on a research company's poll. Also called subscription studies.
    Omnibus Survey or Study
  100. Research that can be numerically stated or compared; may use statictical standards; highly objective and projectable; uses color-end or forced choice questions.
    Quantitative Research
  101. Individuals whose opinions are sought in a survey, broad or focused.
    Population
  102. Collecting information that describes existing conditions, the status quo of individuals, group opinions, attitudes or behavior. Usually designed to test a theory or hypothesis.
    Descriptive Research
  103. Systematic gathering of information for the purpose of describing and understanding situations, ans checking out assumptions about public and PR consequences. It helps define the problem.
    Research
  104. Involves predicting or establishing a desired future state; formulating a strategy for achieving the desired state.
    Strategic Thinking
  105. Four-Step PR Plan Process
    ROPE: Research, Objecives, Programming and Evaluation

    • or
    • RACE: Research, Analysis/Planning/Action, Communication, Evaluation
  106. Differences among people within a group, stemming from variations in factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, religion, sexual preference, education, etc.
    Diversity
  107. An inclination, often unconscious, to behave in a given way as a result of a spectrum of information, values, beliefs, experiences and persuasive messages.
    Attitude
  108. The process of measuring and assessing risk and developing strategies to manage it.
    Risk Management
  109. In crisis PR planning, the determination of the chance of various occurences in order to take steps to handle such incidents in the order of their probability.
    Risk Assessment
  110. A portion of a larger whole; in polling, a relatively small group of individuals selected to represent a population, usually by means of random probability sampling techniques that allows for the calculation of the exact probability of such representation.
    Sample
  111. Unabridged collection of all that is known about situation, its history, forces operating on it and those involved or affected internally and externally. Contains all the background information needed to expand upon and illustrate in details the meaning of the problem situation.
    Scientific Method
  112. Information oulled together to define a situation (e.g. hostory, factors affecting a situation, people involved, etc.). Contains all information needed to write a problem statement.
    Situational Analysis
  113. A problem-solving approach that gives planners a visual image of a problem by breaking the problem into progressively smaller parts. By examining factors that contribute to the problem, information relating to the problem and questions raised by the problem, communication experts can identify best solutions to respond to the many parts of a problem.
    Drill-Down Technique
  114. Helps managers analyze a particular problem by thinking through reasons a problem exists. Also know as Fishbone Diagrams.
    Cause and Effect Diagrams
  115. The exact tools and activities used at the operational level. Specific ways to implement the strategy.
    Tactics/Tools
  116. Refers to the degree to which a reserach study accurately assesses what the researcher set out to measure.
    Validity
  117. Gathering information as a way of monitoring a program to document the effectiveness of the whole program or its parts.
    Summative Research
  118. Uses research findings of others, or collects information secondhand. Previously reported/published information. Exampls: U.S. Census research.
    Secondary Research

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