Pathophysiology 301 - Section 1
Card Set Information
Pathophysiology 301 - Section 1
cell injury adaptation
Cell Injury and Adaptation
The cause of a disease or disorder.
What term refers to the evolution of a disease or disorder?
The morphology of a disease or disorder refers to _________.
Structural changes caused by the disease/disorder
_______ pathology refers to changes that are common to all tissues (i.e. inflammation) whereas ________ pathology refers to changes to specific organs or structures.
_______ is when a cell is killed by an external forces, while ___________ is when a cell kills itself.
In the process of translation _________ is converted to protein using _______ and __________; this process occurs on the ____________.
mRNA; tRNA; ribosomes; rough endoplasmic reticulum
The ___________ adheres adjacent cells together and contains proteins that allow material to pass between adjacent cells.
What cellular organelle is responsible for protein processing and export?
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
What cellular organelle is responsible for the catabolism of drugs, nutrients, and hormones as well as hormone synthesis?
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Leydig cells are primarily found in the __________ and are responsible for producing __________
What are the three main areas of the body where cells contain lots of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
Testicles (Leydig cells)
What is the name given to the fine granuales of pigment that result accumulate do to partial or incomplete lysosomal digestion?
A lysosome that is also a autophagosome digests what?
Worn out components of the cell itself
A lysosome that is also a heterophagosome digests what?
Material that has entered the cell from an external source
Lipofuscin is primarily composed of ___________.
What type of cellular filament is primarily composed of tubulin and roughly 22nm in diamter?
What type of cellular filament is composed of actin and myosin and is roughly 5nm in diamter?
What type of cellular filament is composed of cell specific protein and is roughly 10nm in diamter?
What type of protein is found in the intermediate filaments of epithelial cells?
Where are mesenchymal cells located? What type of tissues do they develop into?
Bone marrow; connective tissue
What type of protein is found in the intermediate filament of mesenchymal cells?
What type of protein is found in the intermediate filaments of muscle cells?
The intermediate filaments of glial cells contain what protein?
Glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)
What type of protein is found in the intermediate filaments of nerve cells?
Autocrine communication occurs when a cell communicates with __________.
Paracrine communication occurs when a cell communicates with ___________.
A nearby cell
Endocrine communication occurs when a cell communicates with _____________.
A cell that is far away
What are the five main forms of cellular adaptation that were discussed in class?
A decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or entire body is referred to as _______.
What term is used to describe a restriction in blood supply?
What are four possible causes of pathologic atrophy?
Lack of nutrition
Give two examples of physiologic (normal) atrophy.
Atrophy of the thymus during childhood
Atrophy of the uterus, breasts, and ovaries during menopause
The thymus is a specialized organ of the ______ system and is responsible for the production of _____________.
A decrease in the number of cells is called _________ while an increase in the number of cells is called _________.
A stable change from one cell type to another is called ___________.
___________ is a condition where an artery wall thickens due to fatty deposits.
One type of cell adaptation results in enlarged or swollen cells, this is referred to as _________.
Give an example of both physiologic and pathologic hypertrophy.
Physiologic - enlarged skeletal muscles due to body building
Pathologic - enlarged heart due to hypertension
Hypertrophy is often seen in combination with what other type of cell adaptation?
What is the name of the condition characterized by abormal narrowing of the aortic valve opening?
___________ is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart.
Give an example of physiologic hypertrophy AND hyperplasia.
Increased cell size and quantity in the smooth muscle of the uterus during pregnancy
Give an example of pathologic hypertrophy AND hyperplasia.
Increased cell size and quantity in the smooth muscle of the bladder when obstructed by a hyperplastic prostate
T/F Metaplasia is reversible.
What is it called when the number of immature cells in a tissue increases and subsequently the number of mature cells decreases.
What is it called when there is an abnormal proliferation of cells that is not coordinated with surrounding tissue?
Give an example of metaplasia.
With chronic exposure to cigarette smoke the columnar epithelial cells of the bronchial mucosa turn into stratified epithelium
A partial or incomplete blockage of oxygen to a cell is called __________, while a complete blockage of oxygen is called __________.
How does hypoxia cause cell injury and what is type of adaptation is typically seen?
Without oxygen the cell cannot synthesize ATP via oxidative phosphorylation and typically the cell swells (hypertrophy)
Why do hypoxic cells swell?
Without ATP there is no fuel for certain enzymes that maintain cellular homeostasis and consequently there is an influx of sodium and water from the extracellular fluid
What are the 5 signs of reversible cell injury?
Dissociation of ribosomes
Aggregation of the cell nucleus
Acute cell injury is accompanied by increased levels of _________ in the cytosol.
Free calcium ion
During acute cell injury calcium levels increase in the cytosol due to an influx of calcium from ________, _________, and __________.
Extracellular fluid, mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum
What four key enzymes are activated by the increased levels of calcium in the cytosol during acute cell injury?
What is the result when calcium influx activates ATPase?
Less ATP available
What is the result when calcium influx activates phospholipidase enzymes?
Fewer phospholipids are available degrading the cell membrane
What is the result when calcium influx activates protease enzymes?
Disruption of essential proteins for the cell membrane and cell cytoskeleton
What is the result when calcium influx activates endonuclease enzymes?
Nuclear chromatin damage
What are four indications that a cell has suffered irreversible damage?
Rupture of cell membrane
Severe nuclear changes
Rupturing of lysosomes (leads to autolysis)
Formation of dense bodies in the mitochondria
What are the three clearest indicators of severe/irreversible nuclear damages?
_______ is a term for the condensation of nuclear material during irreversible cell injury.
________ is the term for fragmentation of nuclear material during irreversible cell injury.
_________ is the term for the dissolution of nuclear material by endonucleases during irreversible cell injury.
How can we test for cell injury in specific tissues?
Identify cytoplasmic enzymes found in a specific tissue and test for their presence in the blood
Why won't restoring oxygen to a severly injured cell restore it?
The weakened cell will be killed by oxygen free radicals
Reoxygenating severly injured cells often results in further cell damage due to oxygen free radicals, what is the term for this?
What radical forms of oxygen cause reperfusion damage?
What are the 5 types of cell necrosis?
When does coagulative necrosis occur?
When there is a sudden cutoff of blood flow to tissues
What are three organs that tend to show coagulative necrosis? How does this type of necrosis appear in these organs?
The heart, kidney, and spleen display coagulative necrosis after an infarction. Dead tissue in these organs is largely intact and appears paler than normal.
What type of necrosis results in tissue softening due to the release of hydrolytic enzymes and lysosomes from dead cells?
Which type of necrosis is most likely to effect brain tissues or result in the development of an abcess?
What type of necrosis turns tissues soft and greasy, making them resemble cottage cheese?
________ necrosis is typically seen in tuberculosis and fungal granulomas.
T/F In caseous necrosis most of the cellular architechture is preserved
Severe injury to tissue with high fat content such as the __________, tissue surrounding the __________, or the tissue lining the ___________ results in __________.
Breast; pancreas; abdominal cavity; fat necrosis