Pathophysiology 301 - Section 1

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Pathophysiology 301 - Section 1
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2011-06-01 18:41:35
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cell injury adaptation
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Cell Injury and Adaptation
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  1. The cause of a disease or disorder.
    Etiology
  2. What term refers to the evolution of a disease or disorder?
    Pathogenesis
  3. The morphology of a disease or disorder refers to _________.
    Structural changes caused by the disease/disorder
  4. _______ pathology refers to changes that are common to all tissues (i.e. inflammation) whereas ________ pathology refers to changes to specific organs or structures.
    General; systemic
  5. _______ is when a cell is killed by an external forces, while ___________ is when a cell kills itself.
    Necrosis; apoptosis
  6. In the process of translation _________ is converted to protein using _______ and __________; this process occurs on the ____________.
    mRNA; tRNA; ribosomes; rough endoplasmic reticulum
  7. The ___________ adheres adjacent cells together and contains proteins that allow material to pass between adjacent cells.
    Desmosome
  8. What cellular organelle is responsible for protein processing and export?
    Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  9. What cellular organelle is responsible for the catabolism of drugs, nutrients, and hormones as well as hormone synthesis?
    Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  10. Leydig cells are primarily found in the __________ and are responsible for producing __________
    Testicles; testosterone
  11. What are the three main areas of the body where cells contain lots of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
    • Liver
    • Testicles (Leydig cells)
    • Adrenal gland
  12. What is the name given to the fine granuales of pigment that result accumulate do to partial or incomplete lysosomal digestion?
    Lipofuscin
  13. A lysosome that is also a autophagosome digests what?
    Worn out components of the cell itself
  14. A lysosome that is also a heterophagosome digests what?
    Material that has entered the cell from an external source
  15. Lipofuscin is primarily composed of ___________.
    Oxidized lipids
  16. What type of cellular filament is primarily composed of tubulin and roughly 22nm in diamter?
    Microtubules
  17. What type of cellular filament is composed of actin and myosin and is roughly 5nm in diamter?
    Microfilaments
  18. What type of cellular filament is composed of cell specific protein and is roughly 10nm in diamter?
    Intermediate filaments
  19. What type of protein is found in the intermediate filaments of epithelial cells?
    Keratin
  20. Where are mesenchymal cells located? What type of tissues do they develop into?
    Bone marrow; connective tissue
  21. What type of protein is found in the intermediate filament of mesenchymal cells?
    Vimentin
  22. What type of protein is found in the intermediate filaments of muscle cells?
    Desmin
  23. The intermediate filaments of glial cells contain what protein?
    Glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)
  24. What type of protein is found in the intermediate filaments of nerve cells?
    Neurofilaments (NFs)
  25. Autocrine communication occurs when a cell communicates with __________.
    Itself
  26. Paracrine communication occurs when a cell communicates with ___________.
    A nearby cell
  27. Endocrine communication occurs when a cell communicates with _____________.
    A cell that is far away
  28. What are the five main forms of cellular adaptation that were discussed in class?
    • Atrophy
    • Hypertrophy
    • Hyperplasia
    • Metaplasia
    • Intercellular accumulations
  29. A decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or entire body is referred to as _______.
    Atrophy
  30. What term is used to describe a restriction in blood supply?
    Ischemia
  31. What are four possible causes of pathologic atrophy?
    • Inactivity
    • Denervation
    • Chronic ischemia
    • Lack of nutrition
  32. Give two examples of physiologic (normal) atrophy.
    • Atrophy of the thymus during childhood
    • Atrophy of the uterus, breasts, and ovaries during menopause
  33. The thymus is a specialized organ of the ______ system and is responsible for the production of _____________.
    Immune; T-lymphocytes
  34. A decrease in the number of cells is called _________ while an increase in the number of cells is called _________.
    Involution; hyperplasia
  35. A stable change from one cell type to another is called ___________.
    Metaplasia
  36. ___________ is a condition where an artery wall thickens due to fatty deposits.
    Atherosclerosis
  37. One type of cell adaptation results in enlarged or swollen cells, this is referred to as _________.
    Hypertrophy
  38. Give an example of both physiologic and pathologic hypertrophy.
    Physiologic - enlarged skeletal muscles due to body building

    Pathologic - enlarged heart due to hypertension
  39. Hypertrophy is often seen in combination with what other type of cell adaptation?
    Hyperplasia
  40. What is the name of the condition characterized by abormal narrowing of the aortic valve opening?
    Aortic stenosis
  41. ___________ is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart.
    Endocarditis
  42. Give an example of physiologic hypertrophy AND hyperplasia.
    Increased cell size and quantity in the smooth muscle of the uterus during pregnancy
  43. Give an example of pathologic hypertrophy AND hyperplasia.
    Increased cell size and quantity in the smooth muscle of the bladder when obstructed by a hyperplastic prostate
  44. T/F Metaplasia is reversible.
    True
  45. What is it called when the number of immature cells in a tissue increases and subsequently the number of mature cells decreases.
    Dysplasia
  46. What is it called when there is an abnormal proliferation of cells that is not coordinated with surrounding tissue?
    Neoplasia
  47. Give an example of metaplasia.
    With chronic exposure to cigarette smoke the columnar epithelial cells of the bronchial mucosa turn into stratified epithelium
  48. A partial or incomplete blockage of oxygen to a cell is called __________, while a complete blockage of oxygen is called __________.
    Hypoxia; anoxia
  49. How does hypoxia cause cell injury and what is type of adaptation is typically seen?
    Without oxygen the cell cannot synthesize ATP via oxidative phosphorylation and typically the cell swells (hypertrophy)
  50. Why do hypoxic cells swell?
    Without ATP there is no fuel for certain enzymes that maintain cellular homeostasis and consequently there is an influx of sodium and water from the extracellular fluid
  51. What are the 5 signs of reversible cell injury?
    • Blep formation
    • Swollen mitochondria
    • Hydropic swelling
    • Dissociation of ribosomes
    • Aggregation of the cell nucleus
  52. Acute cell injury is accompanied by increased levels of _________ in the cytosol.
    Free calcium ion
  53. During acute cell injury calcium levels increase in the cytosol due to an influx of calcium from ________, _________, and __________.
    Extracellular fluid, mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum
  54. What four key enzymes are activated by the increased levels of calcium in the cytosol during acute cell injury?
    • ATPase
    • Proteases
    • Endonucleases
    • Phospholipidase
  55. What is the result when calcium influx activates ATPase?
    Less ATP available
  56. What is the result when calcium influx activates phospholipidase enzymes?
    Fewer phospholipids are available degrading the cell membrane
  57. What is the result when calcium influx activates protease enzymes?
    Disruption of essential proteins for the cell membrane and cell cytoskeleton
  58. What is the result when calcium influx activates endonuclease enzymes?
    Nuclear chromatin damage
  59. What are four indications that a cell has suffered irreversible damage?
    • Rupture of cell membrane
    • Severe nuclear changes
    • Rupturing of lysosomes (leads to autolysis)
    • Formation of dense bodies in the mitochondria
  60. What are the three clearest indicators of severe/irreversible nuclear damages?
    • Pyknosis
    • Karyolysis
    • Karyorrhexis
  61. _______ is a term for the condensation of nuclear material during irreversible cell injury.
    Pyknosis
  62. ________ is the term for fragmentation of nuclear material during irreversible cell injury.
    Karyorrhexis
  63. _________ is the term for the dissolution of nuclear material by endonucleases during irreversible cell injury.
    Karyolysis
  64. How can we test for cell injury in specific tissues?
    Identify cytoplasmic enzymes found in a specific tissue and test for their presence in the blood
  65. Why won't restoring oxygen to a severly injured cell restore it?
    The weakened cell will be killed by oxygen free radicals
  66. Reoxygenating severly injured cells often results in further cell damage due to oxygen free radicals, what is the term for this?
    Reperfusion injury
  67. What radical forms of oxygen cause reperfusion damage?
    • Hydroxyl radical
    • Superoxide
    • Hydrogen peroxide
  68. What are the 5 types of cell necrosis?
    • Coagulative
    • Liquefactive
    • Caseous
    • Fat
    • Fibrinoid
  69. When does coagulative necrosis occur?
    When there is a sudden cutoff of blood flow to tissues
  70. What are three organs that tend to show coagulative necrosis? How does this type of necrosis appear in these organs?
    The heart, kidney, and spleen display coagulative necrosis after an infarction. Dead tissue in these organs is largely intact and appears paler than normal.
  71. What type of necrosis results in tissue softening due to the release of hydrolytic enzymes and lysosomes from dead cells?
    Liquefactive necrosis
  72. Which type of necrosis is most likely to effect brain tissues or result in the development of an abcess?
    Liquefactive necrosis
  73. What type of necrosis turns tissues soft and greasy, making them resemble cottage cheese?
    Caseous necrosis
  74. ________ necrosis is typically seen in tuberculosis and fungal granulomas.
    Caseous necrosis
  75. T/F In caseous necrosis most of the cellular architechture is preserved
    False
  76. Severe injury to tissue with high fat content such as the __________, tissue surrounding the __________, or the tissue lining the ___________ results in __________.
    Breast; pancreas; abdominal cavity; fat necrosis

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