Card Set Information
never ending circulation of the earths water supply
portion of water being soaked into the earths surface
the portion of the water that infiltrates into the ground and is absorbed by plants which is then released in the atmosphere
we are dependent on it for energy, transportation and irrigation
areas that provide water to a river system
is the dranage basin of one stream separated from the dranage basin of another by an imaginary line
is water flowing in channels.
Three main tasks
A slow or rapid flow
ability of a stream to erode and transport
Velocity is controled by 3 factors
2 shape, size and roughness of the channel
the vertical drop of a stream over a distance and slope of a stream
volume of water flowing past a certain point in a given unit of time.
changes from upstream to downstream
gradient gradually decreases from head to mouth
The 5 Works of running water
ability of a stream to accumlate and transport soil and weathered rock
the movement of particles from one place to another.
There are three categorys
1 dessolved load- materals are dissolved in water (limestone)
2 suspended load - materals are suspended (silt and clay)
3 bed load- portions of the stream consisting of sand gravel and large bulders
the maximum size of particles a stream can carry
maximum load a stream can carry
# 5 deposition
as the stream slows down it compendence reduces and the largest particles are dropped off first and then the smaller particles. material deposited by the stream is called alluvium
materials droped off by the stream
the gradient is steep in the headwaters and rivers cut into the bed rock
Several streams are composed of loosely consolidated sediments and they undergo constant change as the material is eroded, transported, and deposited.
the streams curve
when streams cut off a menander
a short channel is created when a river erodes through a narrow neck of land between meanders
interconnected network of streams
where is the maximum velocity of a river
base level and stream erosion
the limit to which a stream can erode
valleys deepen and widen by this action, consists of channels and sournding terrain.
the lying area of a stream vallet that can flood
the stream hits still waters and its velocity drops and the deposits forms
elevated land that confines their waters except durning flooding
it forms when high gradient streams leaves a narrow valley in mountainous terrian and comes onto the broad flat open plain.
the network of streams that together form characteristic patterns
drainage resembles the branches of a tree
the stream moves away from the central area, associated with sloping terrains.
when streams are bent along right angles
tributaries are parallel to one another and look garden rows
50% of people in the us depend on ground water for day to day use
ability of the substance to hold water
ability of the substance to transmit water
layers of rocks in which water can be extracted in usable amounts
impermeable layers of rock or sediment
zone of sataration
the zone in the ground that is filled or saturated with water
zone of aeration
it is the zone in the ground which is not filled with water
is the level of water inside the ground
moves from a higher water table to a lower water table
the relationship of the rate of groundwater flow
Betweeen 2 points to the difference of hydrolic head( hight of water level between them
ft per second
removing of ground water
a large amount of water is removed from the well and ground water level is lowered and is lowering
cone of depression
the depression after the withdrawal of groundwater. is not noticable for small amounts.
no penetrible rock
what type of rock have larger hydrolic pour spaces
ground water has been treated
excessive pumping of ground water results in
helps one side of the ground one is doing well
ground water contamints caused by
septic tanks, fetillizers and pesticides
groundwater dissolves what type of rocks
soluble rocks (lime stone)
ground water erosion occure and have candle shaped features
when rock is limestone and water and dry zones form.
vegetation helps dissolution process by providing acids
large sheets of perennially frozen ice
valley (alpine) glacier
confined to a mountain range
Ice sheets (contiental)
larger and contients (antarctica and greenland)
how glaciers erode
it plucks and melt water goes into the crack and freezing breaks the rocks.
when rock fragments slide over bedrock. then it polishes and smooths the surface, this pulverized rock is called rock flour
formed as the ice at the bottom of the glacier contained large rock fragments moves
Essay 5 land formations by glacial erosion
the glaciers widen deepens and straigtens a v shaped valley becomes U shaped.
circular feature that is carved out by the glacier
sharp saw toothed ridge (saddleback) formed by glacier erosion
pyramidal features observed after the sides have been carved out by the glacier
# 5 fiords
Scenic inlets of sea that are present in high latitude regions of the world where mountains are adjacent to oceans.
is the unsorted sediment deposited directly by a glacier
layers of till
formed when blocks of ice becomes stagnant and then melts
the till is deposited into a mound
ridges compromising of sand and gravel are deposited made by streams beneath the ice
steep sided hills composed of sand and gravel
covers 30% of earhts surface little or no plant or animal
mechanical weather proceses by which sand and other materals are eroded transported and deposited by wind.
role of water
plays little part and rain results in flash flooding
normal faults and mountains
trend N-S direction
Basin and range province
feature that goes from nevada to oregon
picks up materals and transports the materals carving items in its way bc wind increases with the hight from the surface
removing and lifting of individual particles
when the wind removes the and the pebles surfave is left behind.
landforms that are created by wind in some reagons
topographic is covered by windblown silt
Unconsolidated ridges of sand deposited in a mound
gently sloping windward side
steep slope of the dune
cresent shaped and sand is limited
more sand is supplyed
deeply curved and convex in downward wind direction
largets type and is formed parallel.
rapid release of energy from the rocks
how the energy is released
not all earthquakes happen here
point of orgin of the earthquake (below ground)
point on the earths surface directly above the focus
smallest amplitude and fastest
med amplitude and med speed
largest amplitude and slowest, most damage
three seismic stations are for
locating and measuring eatthquakes
used to record an earthquake, record all over the world
the resulting paper record from the earthqakke
speeds of waves and arival times
the distance the wave repeates
eye witness account form I (few people to XII ( nothing left standing)
Richter's magnitude scale
the amout of ground displacement it procuces near the epicenter
moment magnitude scale
large earthquakes, the strength of the rock and displacement of faulty is accounted for
Essay 5 distruction form earthquakes
permanent displacemnt of land surface
trembling and shaking of land, large E movement is visable and can destroy buildings
Broken gas water and power lines can cause problems. San Francisco fire caused more damage
water saturated soil turns from soild to liquid from the ground shaking.
permanernt displacement of land surface
takes place as a result of movement along a fault
5 of 6 aftershocks
small E that follow the main one and can cause serous damage.
movement of the sea floor up or downwards. making large waves
earth inner structure
core mantel and crust
ridged and divided into contiental and oceanic
19 miles thick and is thicker
3 miles thick and less thick, links below contiental
seporates the crust between the mantel
80% of earths volume
consists of oxides of silcone amd magnesium
dense mixtureof iron and magesium
inner most layer
is liquis molten and is icon and nickel, 90 % of earths magnetic field.
is solid and sense and is iron
crack in rocks, small tremors, water levels change or animals ack strange
earth surface is divided in large plates that slowley move
Alfred wegner theory, contients all most idental
contients are moved by what
evidence of plate tectonics
simular coastlines, same fossils, same rock types, same sediments across the contients.
large slab of earths surface that is made up of the seafloor
Essay 3 types of plate boundaries
Divergent plate boundaries
The plates move away from one another.
They are associated with mafic-basaltic lavas.
Also called as constructive plate boundaries.
On the seafloor is located at the crest of the mid-oceanic ridge.
EX mid atlantic ridge
Convergent Plate Boundaries:
Two plates move towards one another.
Also called as destructive plate boundaries.
Three types of convergent plate boundaries
: Oceanic-Oceanic (Mariana Trench), Continental-Continental (Himalayas), and Oceanic- Continental (Andes)
Last essay Transform Plate Boundary:
This is where plates slide by one another. Characterized by horizontal movement along the fault plane.
Movementalong these plates may result in earthquakes.
Also called as conservative plate boundaries.
San Andreas fault is a good example of a transforms plate boundary.
case two oceanic plates converge and one oceanic plate converges below the other.
Oceanic-Continental Plate Convergence:
involves the oceanic plate subducting below the continent and forms a magamtic arc, Andes mountain
Continental-Continental Plate Convergence:
two continental plates come together and the are separated by the ocean floor
is where the sea loor slides beneath the continent or an island arc.
Takes place when the hot magma rises and pushes its way up. As it approaches the crust it pushes its way through and move the plates apart (caramel oozing out of a Mars candy bar).
hot rocks moves away from the ridge it cools and solidifies and becomes dense then sinks back down
The study of ancient magnetic fields
as magma cool Iron points