Ch 5-8

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Ch 5-8
2011-06-02 01:35:48

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  1. Hydrologic cycle
    never ending circulation of the earths water supply
  2. infiltration
    portion of water being soaked into the earths surface
  3. transportation
    the portion of the water that infiltrates into the ground and is absorbed by plants which is then released in the atmosphere
  4. running water
    we are dependent on it for energy, transportation and irrigation
  5. drainage basins
    areas that provide water to a river system
  6. divide
    is the dranage basin of one stream separated from the dranage basin of another by an imaginary line
  7. river system
    • is water flowing in channels.
    • Three main tasks
    • 1 erosion
    • 2 transporation
    • 3 deposition
  8. streamflow
    A slow or rapid flow
  9. Velocity
    ability of a stream to erode and transport
  10. Velocity is controled by 3 factors
    • 1 Gradient
    • 2 shape, size and roughness of the channel
    • 3 discharge
  11. gradient
    the vertical drop of a stream over a distance and slope of a stream
  12. Discharge
    • volume of water flowing past a certain point in a given unit of time.
    • ft^3/s
  13. changes from upstream to downstream
    gradient gradually decreases from head to mouth
  14. Essay 1
    The 5 Works of running water
    • Erosion
    • Transportation
    • Competence
    • Capacity
    • Deposition
  15. erossion
    ability of a stream to accumlate and transport soil and weathered rock
  16. transportation
    • the movement of particles from one place to another.
    • There are three categorys
    • 1 dessolved load- materals are dissolved in water (limestone)
    • 2 suspended load - materals are suspended (silt and clay)
    • 3 bed load- portions of the stream consisting of sand gravel and large bulders
  17. competence
    the maximum size of particles a stream can carry
  18. capacity
    maximum load a stream can carry
  19. # 5 deposition
    as the stream slows down it compendence reduces and the largest particles are dropped off first and then the smaller particles. material deposited by the stream is called alluvium
  20. alluvium
    materials droped off by the stream
  21. bedrock channels
    the gradient is steep in the headwaters and rivers cut into the bed rock
  22. alluvial channels
    Several streams are composed of loosely consolidated sediments and they undergo constant change as the material is eroded, transported, and deposited.
  23. meandering streams
    the streams curve
  24. oxbow lake
    when streams cut off a menander
  25. cutoff
    a short channel is created when a river erodes through a narrow neck of land between meanders
  26. braided streams
    interconnected network of streams
  27. where is the maximum velocity of a river
    top center
  28. base level and stream erosion
    the limit to which a stream can erode
  29. stream valleys
    valleys deepen and widen by this action, consists of channels and sournding terrain.
  30. floodplain
    the lying area of a stream vallet that can flood
  31. deltas
    the stream hits still waters and its velocity drops and the deposits forms
  32. natural levees
    elevated land that confines their waters except durning flooding
  33. alluvial fans
    it forms when high gradient streams leaves a narrow valley in mountainous terrian and comes onto the broad flat open plain.
  34. drainage patterns
    the network of streams that together form characteristic patterns
  35. dendritic
    drainage resembles the branches of a tree
  36. radial
    the stream moves away from the central area, associated with sloping terrains.
  37. rectangular
    when streams are bent along right angles
  38. trellis
    tributaries are parallel to one another and look garden rows
  39. groundwater
    50% of people in the us depend on ground water for day to day use
  40. porsity
    ability of the substance to hold water
  41. permeability
    ability of the substance to transmit water
  42. aquifer
    layers of rocks in which water can be extracted in usable amounts
  43. aquitard
    impermeable layers of rock or sediment
  44. zone of sataration
    the zone in the ground that is filled or saturated with water
  45. zone of aeration
    it is the zone in the ground which is not filled with water
  46. water table
    is the level of water inside the ground
  47. movement
    moves from a higher water table to a lower water table
  48. Darcy’s Law
    the relationship of the rate of groundwater flow
  49. Groundwater Flow
    • Betweeen 2 points to the difference of hydrolic head( hight of water level between them
    • ft per second
  50. well
    removing of ground water
  51. drawdown
    a large amount of water is removed from the well and ground water level is lowered and is lowering
  52. cone of depression
    the depression after the withdrawal of groundwater. is not noticable for small amounts.
  53. no penetrible rock
  54. what type of rock have larger hydrolic pour spaces
  55. ground water has been treated
    nonrenuable source
  56. excessive pumping of ground water results in
    surface colapsing
  57. precision argurlature
    helps one side of the ground one is doing well
  58. ground water contamints caused by
    septic tanks, fetillizers and pesticides
  59. groundwater dissolves what type of rocks
    soluble rocks (lime stone)
  60. caverns
    ground water erosion occure and have candle shaped features
  61. karst topology
    when rock is limestone and water and dry zones form.
  62. karst topography
    vegetation helps dissolution process by providing acids
  63. glaciers
    large sheets of perennially frozen ice
  64. valley (alpine) glacier
    confined to a mountain range
  65. Ice sheets (contiental)
    larger and contients (antarctica and greenland)
  66. how glaciers erode
    it plucks and melt water goes into the crack and freezing breaks the rocks.
  67. abrasion
    when rock fragments slide over bedrock. then it polishes and smooths the surface, this pulverized rock is called rock flour
  68. rock flour
    pulverized rock
  69. glacial striations
    formed as the ice at the bottom of the glacier contained large rock fragments moves
  70. Essay 5 land formations by glacial erosion
    • glaciated valleys
    • cirque
    • arete
    • horn
    • fiords
  71. glaciated valleys
    the glaciers widen deepens and straigtens a v shaped valley becomes U shaped.
  72. cirque
    circular feature that is carved out by the glacier
  73. arete
    sharp saw toothed ridge (saddleback) formed by glacier erosion
  74. horn
    pyramidal features observed after the sides have been carved out by the glacier
  75. # 5 fiords
    Scenic inlets of sea that are present in high latitude regions of the world where mountains are adjacent to oceans.
  76. till
    is the unsorted sediment deposited directly by a glacier
  77. moraines
    layers of till
  78. kettles
    formed when blocks of ice becomes stagnant and then melts
  79. drumlins
    the till is deposited into a mound
  80. eskers
    ridges compromising of sand and gravel are deposited made by streams beneath the ice
  81. kames
    steep sided hills composed of sand and gravel
  82. deserts
    covers 30% of earhts surface little or no plant or animal
  83. weathering
    mechanical weather proceses by which sand and other materals are eroded transported and deposited by wind.
  84. role of water
    plays little part and rain results in flash flooding
  85. normal faults and mountains
    trend N-S direction
  86. Basin and range province
    feature that goes from nevada to oregon
  87. wind erosion
    picks up materals and transports the materals carving items in its way bc wind increases with the hight from the surface
  88. deflation
    removing and lifting of individual particles
  89. desert pavement
    when the wind removes the and the pebles surfave is left behind.
  90. wind deposition
    landforms that are created by wind in some reagons
  91. loess
    topographic is covered by windblown silt
  92. Dunes
    Unconsolidated ridges of sand deposited in a mound
  93. stoss
    gently sloping windward side
  94. slipface
    steep slope of the dune
  95. barchan
    cresent shaped and sand is limited
  96. transcerse dune
    more sand is supplyed
  97. parabolic dune
    deeply curved and convex in downward wind direction
  98. longitudinal dune
    largets type and is formed parallel.
  99. earthquakes
    rapid release of energy from the rocks
  100. seismic waves
    how the energy is released
  101. Faults
    not all earthquakes happen here
  102. focus
    point of orgin of the earthquake (below ground)
  103. epicenter
    point on the earths surface directly above the focus
  104. P waves
    smallest amplitude and fastest
  105. s waves
    med amplitude and med speed
  106. surface waves
    largest amplitude and slowest, most damage
  107. three seismic stations are for
    locating and measuring eatthquakes
  108. seismograph
    used to record an earthquake, record all over the world
  109. seismographic
    the resulting paper record from the earthqakke
  110. seismograph
    speeds of waves and arival times
  111. wavelengh
    the distance the wave repeates
  112. mercalli scale
    eye witness account form I (few people to XII ( nothing left standing)
  113. Richter's magnitude scale
    the amout of ground displacement it procuces near the epicenter
  114. moment magnitude scale
    large earthquakes, the strength of the rock and displacement of faulty is accounted for
  115. Essay 5 distruction form earthquakes
    • ground motion
    • fire
    • landslides
    • liquefication
    • permanent displacemnt of land surface
    • aftershock
  116. ground motion
    trembling and shaking of land, large E movement is visable and can destroy buildings
  117. fire
    Broken gas water and power lines can cause problems. San Francisco fire caused more damage
  118. liquefaction
    water saturated soil turns from soild to liquid from the ground shaking.
  119. permanernt displacement of land surface
    takes place as a result of movement along a fault
  120. 5 of 6 aftershocks
    small E that follow the main one and can cause serous damage.
  121. Tsunami
    movement of the sea floor up or downwards. making large waves
  122. earth inner structure
    core mantel and crust
  123. crust
    ridged and divided into contiental and oceanic
  124. contiental
    19 miles thick and is thicker
  125. oceanic
    3 miles thick and less thick, links below contiental
  126. mohorocicic discontiunity
    seporates the crust between the mantel
  127. mantel
    80% of earths volume
  128. upper mantle
    consists of oxides of silcone amd magnesium
  129. lower mantel
    dense mixtureof iron and magesium
  130. core
    inner most layer
  131. outercore
    is liquis molten and is icon and nickel, 90 % of earths magnetic field.
  132. inner core
    is solid and sense and is iron
  133. E prediction
    crack in rocks, small tremors, water levels change or animals ack strange
  134. plate tectonics
    earth surface is divided in large plates that slowley move
  135. contiental drift
    Alfred wegner theory, contients all most idental
  136. contients are moved by what
  137. evidence of plate tectonics
    simular coastlines, same fossils, same rock types, same sediments across the contients.
  138. plate
    large slab of earths surface that is made up of the seafloor
  139. Essay 3 types of plate boundaries
    • Divergent
    • convergent
    • transform
  140. Divergent plate boundaries
    • The plates move away from one another.
    • They are associated with mafic-basaltic lavas.
    • Also called as constructive plate boundaries.
    • On the seafloor is located at the crest of the mid-oceanic ridge.

    EX mid atlantic ridge
  141. Convergent Plate Boundaries:
    • Two plates move towards one another.
    • Also called as destructive plate boundaries.
    • Three types of convergent plate boundaries: Oceanic-Oceanic (Mariana Trench), Continental-Continental (Himalayas), and Oceanic- Continental (Andes)
  142. Last essay Transform Plate Boundary:
    • This is where plates slide by one another. Characterized by horizontal movement along the fault plane.
    • Movementalong these plates may result in earthquakes.
    • Also called as conservative plate boundaries.
    • San Andreas fault is a good example of a transforms plate boundary.
  143. Oceanic-Oceanic Convergence:
    case two oceanic plates converge and one oceanic plate converges below the other.
  144. Oceanic-Continental Plate Convergence:
    involves the oceanic plate subducting below the continent and forms a magamtic arc, Andes mountain
  145. Continental-Continental Plate Convergence:
    two continental plates come together and the are separated by the ocean floor
  146. Subduction
    is where the sea loor slides beneath the continent or an island arc.
  147. Mid-Oceanic Ridges
    Takes place when the hot magma rises and pushes its way up. As it approaches the crust it pushes its way through and move the plates apart (caramel oozing out of a Mars candy bar).
  148. ocean treanches
    hot rocks moves away from the ridge it cools and solidifies and becomes dense then sinks back down
  149. paleomagnetism.
    The study of ancient magnetic fields
  150. as magma cool Iron points