1. D must commit an act of restraint.
Threats sufficient (subject to reasonableness).
Most common: Mall cop: “If you leave, I’ll call the police.”
Detaining traveler's property and suggesting he won't be able to retrieve if he doesn't stay.
only if there was a preexisting obligation to help the P move around.
counts if P (i) knows about it, or (ii) is harmed by it.
2. P must, as consequence, be confined in a bounded area.
- Bounded=area of movement is limited in all directions (even if bounded only by terms
- of a threat).
Area is not bounded if there is a reasonable means
of escape that the P can reasonably
discover (not dangerous/disgusting/humiliating/hidden).