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  1. Clotting cascade?
    • injury
    • vasoconstriction
    • platelets
    • prothrombin to thrombin
    • fibrinogen to fibrin
    • fibrinolysis
  2. Agranulocytosis
    what usually causes?
    What kind of meds?
    what would be low?
    Risk for
    • -baso, eosin, neutr
    • supp of bone marrow/chemo, radiation, bact, -
    • -antibiotics,
    • -viral inf, genetics (possibility)
    • -WBC/neutrophils
    • -deadly infection
    • - inflammatory stuff, ulcers in mucous membranes, later- pneumonia, UTI
  3. Agran...mgmt?
    • find/x cause of marrow suppression
    • treat/prevent infections
    • xfusion of PRBC
    • figrastim (Neupogen) SC
    • handwashing
  4. Leukemia
    • lots of WBCs, no infection,
    • immature,
    • anemia
    • splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, mepatomegaly, bone pain, meningeal irritation, oral lesions, bleeding, petechiae
  5. AML adults
    AML in kids
    • 5 year remission- only 25%
    • can survive longer
  6. What is normal value of WBCs?
    What meds elevate?
    What lowers?
    • 4.500-10,500 cells/mm3
    • epinephrine, aspirin, allopurinol, steroids, heparin
    • bacterial infections, bone marrow dep, pernicious anemia
    • antibiotics, anithyroid, antiepiletic, ntihistamines, chemo, diuretics
  7. renal failure leads to anemia how?
    what mimics the missing thing?
    • erythropoietin rel by kidneys
    • epo
  8. Platelet count- normal value?
    What drugs affect platelet count?


    • 150-400 X10^3
    • aspirin, heparin

    (thrombocythemia, thrombocytosis) renal failure, malignancies, chronic pancreatitis

    (thrombocytopenia) include disseminated intravascular goag, hemolytic anemia, bone marrow malignancies.

    Less than 20,000 cells/mm3 associated with a tendency for spontaneous bleeding and prolonged bleeding time.
  9. Multiple myeloma
    malignant neoplastic immunodeficiency disease of bone marrow.

    neoplastic cells infiltrate bone marrow- bone probs like pain, fractures, deformities, back pain

    • older 40, peak at 65, gradual, insidious, , suscpt to infection follows disturbances of antibody form by abnormal plasma cells.
    • bone destruction w dissemination into lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidneys, patho fractures.
    • Prod of all blood cells crowded out, so infection, anemia, inc pot for bleeding. Ca and Ph drain from bones, leading to hyper calc and renal problems, cell dest contrib to dev of hyperuicemia, wcan cause renal failure alon w myeloma protein.

    dx- radiographic sk studies, bone marr biopsy, lab exam bl and urine, monoclonal ab may be present, aeb serum or urine electrophoresis. no cure. radiation, chemo for tumor size. intineoplastic drugs. Analgesic and ortho supports. Fluid, corticosteroids
  10. Platelets/ What's HIT?
    What's antidote to Heparin?
    • Heparin induced thrombocytopenia
    • platelets coated in antibodies
    • Protamine
  11. What's antidote to Warfarin?
    Vitamin K
  12. B12
    What is it needed for?


    adequate nerve func, protein and carb metab, normal growth, RBC dev, cell repro

    Flushing diarrhea, itching, rash, hypoK

    GI functions, K levs at beg of treatment. Need to return for shot 1X/mo if pernicious anemia
  13. Folic Acid

    Needed for?

    Erythropoieses, inc RBC, WBC, plt fomr in megaloblastic anemias,

    rash, pruritis, gen malaise, bronchospas, slight flushing

    IM, SC, IV
  14. Ferrous Sulfate

    What for?

    Rep iron stores needed for RBC development

    • NVD const epigastric pain, black and red tarry stools, discolored urine, staining of teeth
    • between meals, OJ, straw to avoid staining teeth
  15. Desmopressin DDAVP
    Given for Mild Von Willebrand's, not for Hemophilia

    Prom reabsorp of water by kidneys and inc plasma factor 8 lev, inc platelet agg, resulting in vasopressor effect, nasal irr, cong, drowsiness, h ache, flushing, nausea, ab cramps, heartburn, vulval pain, HTN, avoid overhydration

    Can cause hyper or hyponatremia, cures D insipidous
  16. Filgastrim (Neupogen)
    Stim prolif and diff of neutrophils

    fever, alopecia, sk pain , NVD, mucositis, anorexia

    Adverse affects- thrombocytopenia

    (arryth, chest pain mi- very rare)
  17. DIC
    clot and bleed, clot and bleed, clot and bleed

    Heparin, easier to get a head of, even tho can be a cause

    Elevated D-dimer (clotting)

    • Elevated coag (bleeding)
    • intubated
  18. Heparin

    Subcut Heparin doesn't affect aPTT, but can cause...

    IV Heparin often...until...
    IV therapeutic range?
    thrombin activity


    • aPTT q 6 h until therapeutic
    • 1.5-2 X normal PTT
  19. Heparin
    How many RNs have to sign off?
    What is antidote?
    • 2
    • protamine sulfate
  20. What is Heparin for?
    • DVT and prev, usually SC
    • DIV-IV
    • Maintain patency of indwelling IV cath- IV in catheter only, during/post MI, thrombotic stroke-IV, A fib
  21. Heparin-
    caution with?
    watch for?
    stop __-__ min before procedure
    Watch labs:_____
    • Ibuprophen, ASA, Warfarin, other anticoags
    • bleeding, excessive bruising,
    • monitor stools,
    • heparin stopped 30-60 prior to procedures
    • aPTT, platelets (same, just aPTT more sensitive) for thrombocytopenia, liver enzymes- if liver damaged, making clotting factors longer, caution w heparin, HCT only if bleeding
  22. White clot syndrome
    • formation of clots dt heparin (related to DIC)
    • heparinPTTprotaminesulfate

    given for potential bleeding dt heparin overdose, dilute and give IV slowly over 30 minutes, severe hypotension, circ collapse, brady, pulm edema

    causes severe hypotension and bradycardia
  23. If allergic to Heparin or have HIT, give
    • angiomax or bivalirudin

    • may increase
    • 1.2 life 25 min
    • Given in PCI procedures instead of Heparin
  24. Low molecular weight heparin
    • DVT prophy
    • dec dose in renal stop 12-24 h prior to procedures
    • platelets, hgb, HCT, ALT, AST, don't monitor coag.. CNS,-fever, confusion, edema, anemia, thrombocytopenia, bleeding, angioedema, anaphylaxis
Card Set:
2011-06-02 18:50:49

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