pharm infection

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seattle
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88822
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pharm infection
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2011-06-02 16:33:16
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pharm infection
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pharm infection
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  1. penicillin

    side/adverse effects
    • allergies/anaphylasis
    • renal impairment
    • hyperkalemia/dysrhythmias with high doses of penicillin G
  2. penicillin

    med interaction
    aminoglycosides

    oral contraceptives
  3. penicillin

    allergic reaction
    skin rash, itching, and/or hives
  4. cephalosporins

    therapeutic effect
    broad-spectrum bactericidal medications with high therapeutic index that treat urinary tract infections, postoperative infections, pelvic infections, and meningitis
  5. cephalosporins

    side/adverse effects
    • allergic/hypersensitivity/anaphylaxis
    • bleeding tendencies
    • thrombophlebitis
    • pain with IM injection
    • cross allergy to penicillins
    • antibiotic associated pseudomembranous colitis
  6. cephalosporins

    contraindications
    who have a history of severe allergic reactions to penicillins

    renal impairment

    meds that promote bleeding: anticoagulants, antiplatelets, thrombolytics, NSAIDs
  7. carbapenems

    imipenem

    therapeutic uses
    broad antimicrobial spectrum is effective for serious infections

    resistance develops when used alone
  8. imipenem

    side/adverse effects
    • allergy/hypersensitivity
    • GI symptoms
    • suprainfection
  9. imipenem

    caution
    use cautiously in clients with renal impairment
  10. vancomycin

    side/adverse effects
    ototoxicity

    infusion reaction (rashes, flushing, tachycardia, hypotension)

    thrombophlebitis
  11. vancomycin

    therapeutic nursing intervention
    vancomycin peak levels should be collected 1 to 2 hr after completion of IV infusion

    appropriate peak levels are between 30 and 40 ug/mL
  12. tetracycline hydrochloride

    side effects
    GI discomfort includes cramping, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and esophageal ulceration

    • yellow/brown tooth discoloration
    • hypoplasia of teeth enamel can occur

    • hepatoxicity
    • photosensitivity
    • suprainfection of the bowel
  13. tetracycline

    med/food interactions
    NO: milk products, calcium supplements, iron supplements, magnesium-containing laxatives and most antacids

    oral contraceptives
  14. erythromycin

    therapeutic uses
    to treat infections in clients with penicillin allergy
  15. erythromycin

    side/adverse effects
    GI discomfort

    thrombophlebitis
  16. erythromycin

    med/food interactions
    • antihistamines
    • theophyline
    • carbamazepine
    • warfarin

    ++results in toxicity
  17. gentamicin

    side/adverse effects
    • ototoxicity
    • nephrotoxicity
    • intensified neuromuscluar blockade resulting in respiratory depression
    • hypersensitivity: rash, pruritus, paresthesia of hands and feet, urticaria
  18. gentamicin

    med/food interaction
    penicillin: will inactivate aminoglycosides when mixed in the same IV solution
  19. trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

    therapeutic uses
    UTI
  20. trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

    side/adverse effects
    • hypersensitivity including Stevens-Johnson syndrome
    • blood dyscrasias
    • crystalluria
    • kernicterus (jaundice, increased bilirubin levels)
    • photosensitivity
  21. nitrofurantoin

    therapeutic uses
    • acute UTI
    • prophylaxis for recurrent lower urinary tract infections
  22. nitrofurantoin

    side/adverse effects
    • GI discomfort
    • hypersensitivity reactions manifested with pulmonary symptoms
    • blood dyscrasias
    • peripheral neuropathy
  23. nitrofurantoin

    contraindications
    with renal impairment, there are low concentrations of nitrofurantoin in the urine. Therefore, levels are not effective enough to eradicate micro-organisms
  24. nitrofurantoin

    contraindications
    impaired renal function will increase the risk of medication toxicity due to inability to excrete nitrofurantoin
  25. isoniazid

    therapeutic uses
    indicated for active and latent tuberculosis

    • latent: INH only - daily for 6 months
    • active: multiple medication therapy including INH, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and/or pyridoxine daily for 6 months
  26. isoniazid

    side/adverse effects
    • peripheral neuropathy
    • hepatotoxicity
  27. isoniazid

    therapeutic nursing interventions
    for active TB, direct observation therapy (DOT) is done to ensure compliance
  28. dapsone

    therapeutic uses
    • treatment of Hansen's disease
    • multi-medication therapy is more effective than monotherapy
  29. dapsone

    side/adverse effects
    • discoloration of body fluids caused by ingestion of rifampin
    • hepatotoxicity
    • mild GI discomfort
  30. dapsone

    caution
    use cautiously in clients with liver dysfunction
  31. acyclovir

    therapeutic use
    med of choice for herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus
  32. acyclovir

    side/adverse effects
    • phlebitis and inflammation at the site of infusion
    • nephrotoxicity
    • mild discomfort associated with oral therapy
  33. acyclovir

    side/adverse effects
    • granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia
    • reproductive toxicity
  34. fluoroquinolones
    ciprofloxacin

    therapeutic uses
    • respiratory, urinary, GI infections
    • infections of bones, joints, skin, and soft tissues

    anthrax
  35. fluoroquinolones
    ciprofloxiacine


    side/adverse effects
    • GI discomfort
    • Achilles tendon rupture
    • suprainfection (thrush, vaginal yeast infection)

    children <18 years of age (due to risk of Achilles tendon rupture)
  36. antiprotozoals

    metronidazole (flagyl)

    therapeutic uses
    used as prophylaxis for clients who will have surgical procedures and are high risk for anaerobic infection (vaginal, abdominal, colorectal surgery)
  37. antiprotozoals

    side/adverse effects
    • GI discomfort - metallic taste
    • darkening of urine
    • CNS symptoms (numbness of extremities, ataxia, seizures)
  38. antiprotozoals

    metronidazole
    used to treat C.diffe

    used to treat H. pylori in clients with peptic ulcer disease in combination with use of tetracycline and bismuth salicylate
  39. antifungals


    amphotericin B deoxycholate
    (Fungizone)

    therapeutic use
    treatment of choice for systemic fungal infection, opportunistic mycoses and nonopportunistic mycoses

    treatment of superficial fungal infections: tinea pedis, tinea cruris
  40. antifungals

    amphotericin B deoxycholate

    side/adverse effects
    • infusion reactions 1-3 hr after initiation
    • thrombophlebitis
    • nephrotoxicity
    • hypokalemia
    • bone marrow suppression
    • hepatoxicity
    • gynecomastia/irregular menstrual flow

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