Psychology Exam 2.txt

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Psychology Exam 2.txt
2010-03-02 20:09:28

Chapters 8 & 9
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  1. Zygote
    fertilized egg
  2. Developmental Psychology
    Study of how behavior changes over time
  3. Post Hoc Fallacy
    false assumption that because one event occurred before another event, it must have caused that event
  4. Bidirectional influences
    Children's experiences influence their development, but their development also influences their experiences.
  5. Cross-sectional design
    research design that examines people of different ages at a single point in time
  6. Cohort effects
    effects observed in a sample of participants that result from individuals in the sample growing up at the same time
  7. Longitudinal design
    research design that examines development in the same group of people on multiple occasions over time
  8. Myths of Development
    Infant determinism and childhood fragility
  9. Infant determinism
    the widespread assumption that extremely early experiences are almost always more influential than later experiences in shaping us as adults
  10. Childhood Fragility
    Children are delicate little creatures who are easily damaged
  11. Distinguish Nature from Nurture
    • Nature: our genetic endowment
    • Nurture: the environments we encounter
  12. Gene-environment interaction
    situation in which the effects of genes depend on the environment in which they are expressed
  13. Developmental Cycle
    • 1. Blastocyst
    • 2. Embryo
    • 3. Fetus
  14. blastocyst
    ball of identical cells early in pregnancy that haven't yet begun to take any specific function in a body part

    Happens in the first week and a half or so after fertilization
  15. Embryo
    Second to eigth week of prenatal development, during which limbs, facial features, and major organs of the body take form

    Eighteen Days after fertilization, the brain begins to develop.
  16. Fetus
    Period of prenatal development from the ninth week until birth after all major organs are established and physical maturation is the primary change

    At the ninth week the heart begins to beat
  17. Teratogens
    Environmental factors that can exert a negative impact on prenatal development

    Examples: Drugs, alcohol, chicken pox, x-rays, anxiety, and depression
  18. Cognitive development
    study of how children learn, think, reason, communicate, and remember
  19. Assimilation
    Piagetian process of absorbing new experience into current knowledge structures
  20. accommodation
    Piagetian process of altering a belief to make it more compatible with experience
  21. Piaget's stages of devlopment
    • Sensorimotor
    • Preoperational
    • concrete operations
    • Formal operations
  22. Piaget
    • 4 stages of devlopment
    • IV: task given to the children
    • DV: performance of the children
    • Mostly in the self quadrant (2)
  23. Sensorimotor stage
    Stage in Piaget's theory characterized by focus on the here and now without the ability to represent experiences mentally
  24. Object permanence
    The understanding that objects continue to exist even when out of view
  25. Preoperational stage
    Stage in Piaget's theroy characterized by the ability to construct mental representations of experience, but not yet perform on them
  26. Egocentrism
    Inability to see the world from others' perspectices
  27. Conservation
    Piagetian task requiring children to understand that despite a transformation in thw physical presentation of an amount, the amount remains the same

    Watched a video where the guy was asking the children about the "rocket fuel"
  28. Concrete operations stage
    Stage in Piaget's theory characterized by the ability to perform mental operations on phyaical events only
  29. Formal operations stage
    Stage in Piaget's theory characterized by the ability to perform hypothetical reasoning beyond the here and now
  30. Vygotsky
    Social and cultural influences on learning

    • Believed learning was gradual
    • Mostly in the learning quadrant (4) but goes to quadrants 1 and 2 as well
  31. Scaffolding
    Vygotskian learning process in which parents provide initial assistance in children's learning but gradually remove structure as children become more competent
  32. Zone of proximal development
    Phase of learning during which children can benefit from instruction
  33. Rauscher
    The Mozart effect: supposed enhancement in intelligence after listening to classical music
  34. Theory of mind
    Ability to reason about what other people know or believe

    False-belief task: test children's ability to understand that someone else believes something they know to be wrong
  35. Lorenz
    • Imprinting of geese: they tend to follow around the first large, moving object they see after hatching
    • IV: time it took for the goslings to follow, and what they followed.
    • DV: the following behavior
    • Mostly in biological quadrant (3)
  36. Imprinting
    Phenomenon observed in which baby birds begin to follow around and attach themselves to any large moving object they see in the hours immediately after hatching
  37. Harlow
    • Contact comfort: positive emotions resulting from touch
    • When frightened by an object, infant monkeys almost always prefer the terry cloth mother over the wire mother, who had nourishment.
  38. Ainsworth
    • Strange situation
    • Separation from mother. Mother and a stranger are present, then the mother leaves the child with the stranger
  39. Adolescence
    the transition between childhood and adulthood commonly associated with the teenage years.
  40. primary sex characteristics
    the reproductive organs and genitals that distinguish the sexes
  41. secondary sex characteristics
    sex-differentiating characteristics that don't relate directly to reproduction, such as breast enlargement in women and deeping voices in men
  42. menarche
    start of menstruation
  43. spermarche
    boys' first ejaculation
  44. identity
    our sense of who we are and our life goals and priorities