Immunology-Lecture 1

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DrA
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88834
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Immunology-Lecture 1
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2011-06-07 13:53:40
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IL1
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Trigger Words Lecture 1
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  1. Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells produce which cells?
    ALL! Specifically they lead to common lymphoid progenitor cell and common myeloid progenitor cell lines
  2. Common lymphoid proginetor cells produce what other types of cells? Describe these cells.
    T cells, B cells (produce ab) and NK cells
  3. Common proginetor cells produce what other types of cells? Describe these cells.
    Granulocytes (eosinophils, neutrophils (PMN), basophil, mast cells, megokaryocytes (produce platelets), and monocytes (produce macrophages)
  4. Self/non-self
  5. Receptor/ligand
  6. CD (cluster of differentiation)
  7. Cytokine/chemokine/interleukin
  8. Innate (non specific)
  9. Toll-like receptors
    TLR-2 recognizes...
    TLR-4 recognizes...
    These are examples of what type of TLR (cell surface/internal)

    TLR-3 recognizes...
    TLR-9 recognizes...
    These are examples of what type of TLR?
    • TLR recongize PAMPs on microbes and pathogens.
    • TLR-2 recognizes techonic acid while TLR-4 recognizes lipopolysacharride. They are both examples of cell surfaces TLRs.

    TLR-3 recognizes viral RNA and TLR-9 recognizes viral DNA. They are both examples of internal TLRs.
  10. Specific (adaptive/acquired)
  11. Eosinophil
    associate with parasitic infxn
  12. Basophil
    • Originate from different precursor than mast cells but they are both granulocytes.
    • Circulating cells.
    • Granules contain histamine.
    • Associated with allergies.
  13. Neutrophils (PMNs-polymorphonuclear
    leucocyte)
    • Short lived cells 1-2 d.
    • Inside are granules.
    • There are many of these cells in the body. On the
    • cell surface there are receptors such that when there is an infx substances are release, cells have receptors for substances and the PMNs are attracted to area
    • when infnx takes place.
    • Other receptors are for Ig.
    • Ab+ ag is recognized by PMN and will internalize both of them together=phagocytosis.Inside the cell material is degraded and the cell dies.
    • These cells also have TLR on the surface and internally. Job=phagocytize, kill, die. Packets are at a pH that are safe to cell.
  14. Monocyte
    • Long lived cells.
    • They have granules inside that are capable of degrading.
    • There are many kinds of macrophages depending on where they are. Liver macrophage-koffer cells Brain-glial cell Kidney-mesangial cell.
    • They have evolved mechanism to degrade foreign materal and then to take small pieces of it and displays it on its surface. They have become known as antigen processing cells (APCs)
  15. Mast Cells
    • Found in tissue
    • spaces.
    • Granules contain histamine.
    • Associated with allergies.
  16. Macrophage
  17. Dendritic cell
    • Come in 2 types: Myleoid DC (aka DC)-Macrophage whose job is to recognize, degrade and present ag on the cell surface. The difference between this and other macrophages is that DC do this more efficiently. Associated with T cell immunity.
    • Follicular DC-lives in lymph nodes and spleen. Surface molecules allow it to collect immune complexes (ab+ag complexes). They don’t internalize these complexes. Associated with B cell immunity.
  18. Natural killer cell (antibody dependent
    cytotoxic cell (ADCC))
    • Questionable origin, thought be from lymphoid series. Has granzymes and perforins (both granules)
    • Apart of innate immune response although there is a receptor for ab on the surface of the cell. Ab + ag of tumor cell or transplant. Now NK ab receptor recognizes it, brings cell into contact with foreign cell and enzymes are passed into target cell and kills cell. Has killer inhibiting receptor (KIR) on its surface. NK are cells in circulation that want to destroy things. Our cells have molecules on the cell surface that are
    • recognized by KIRs which stop NKs from killing our cells.
    • If we devt neoplastic process our cells now have a surface that looks different from nml cells. The NK cell will then kill the mutant cell.
    • Clinical implication-isolate NK cells from pt, grow in large numbers and put back into pt as a type of CA therapy.
  19. B cell
  20. T cell
  21. Primary/secondary lymphatic tissue
  22. Lymph node
  23. Spleen
  24. Primary/secondary immune response
  25. Interferon
    Alpha is produced by lymphocytes, beta by fibroblasts. Alpha and beta are produced in response to viral infections.

    Gamma is produced by activated T cells in response to many T cell activating agents and has both anti-viral and immunoregulatory activities.
  26. Type 1 interferon
  27. Complement. Describe the 3 different types (classical, alternative, lectin)
    Definition- Triggered enzyme system in blood consisting of many proteins and pro-proteins which function in a cascade fashion where the product of one reaction can become an enzymatic catalyst of the next reaction.



    • Classical pathway - so called because it was the first to be
    • described - it typically involves immunoglobulin (IgM and/or IgG).

    • b) Alternative pathway
    • – Probably first to evolve - does not involve 'traditional' (IgG, IgM)
    • immunoglobulin for activation.

    • c) Lectin-Mediated – most recent to be described – involves a mannose binding protein
    • interacting with pathogen surface.
  28. What are the functions of complement?
    1) lysis of foreign organisms


    2) opsonization and viral neutralization


    3) cellular chemotaxis and activation


    4) initiation of inflammation
  29. C-reactive protein (CRP)
    • C-reactive protein (CRP), is an acute phase protein produced by liver cells in response to interleukin-1.
    • It is a protein that binds to bacterial phosphorylcholine and facilitates phagocytosis
    • The above process is opsonization and it uses opsonization to active complement.
  30. Opsonization
  31. Chemotaxis
  32. C3a, C5a
    stimulate chemotaxis of PMN's; bind to specific receptors on basophils and mast cells and cause degranulation which leads to vasodilation, and vascular permeability which leads to vasodilation, and vascular permeability
  33. Anaphylatoxin
    C3a and C5a
  34. Membrane attack complex (MAC)

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