Endocrine System S2M1

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Endocrine System S2M1
2011-08-12 17:26:23
Ross S2M1

Micro Anatomy
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  1. Juxtacrine secretion
    A subsection of the paracrine secretion grouping but the distances are an even shorter distance
  2. Autocrine secretion
    Hormones released from a cell that act on themselves
  3. Interleukin-2 is an example of what type of secretion
    Autocrine secretion
  4. Somatostatin inhibiting insulin is an example of what type of secretion
  5. What is the difference in the mechanism of action Steroid/Thyroid hormones to that of Protein Hormones
    • Steroid/Thyroid hormones have the ability to diffuse through the plasma membrane of cells to activate a receptor
    • Protein Hormones activate receptors in the plasma membrane which activate secondary messengers like cAMP
  6. The Pituitary gland is attached to the Hypothalmus via
  7. What are the two different lobes of the Pituitary gland
    • Adenohypophysis (Anterior)
    • Neurohypophysis (Posterior)
  8. Adenohypophysis is derived from
    Oral ectoderm originating from Rathke's pouch
  9. Neurohypophysis is derived from
    Neural ectoderm from an extension of the hypothalamus
  10. Adenohypophysis consists of what sections
    • Pars Distalis (Ant pituitary)
    • Pars Tuberalis
    • Pars Intermedia
    • "DIT"
  11. Neurohypophysis consists of what regions
    • Pars Nervosa (Posterior Pituitary)
    • Infundibular stem
    • Median Eminence
    • "MIN"
  12. The Sella Turcica is part of what bone
  13. The primary capillary plexus of the Pituitary gland is found where and is the location of what
    • It is found in the median eminance of the Neurohypophysis
    • This is where the Hypothalamus secretes hormones
  14. Blood enters and leaves the pituitary gland with hormones through what series of vessels
    • Internal Carotid
    • Superior Hypophyseal Artery "Hypo"
    • Primary capillary plexus "Primary cap"
    • Hypophyseal portal veins "Hypo"
    • Secondary capillary plexus "Secondary cap"
    • Anterior Hypophyseal veins "Hypo"
  15. Where is the Secondary capillary plexus located
    Pars distalis
  16. What are the different cells found in the Pars Distalis and their stain affinity
    • Somatotropic cells - Acidophilic
    • Mammotropic cells - Acidophilic
    • Gonadotropic cells - Basophilic
    • Thyrotropic cells - Basophilic
    • Corticotropic cells - Basophilic
  17. What do the Somatotrophs produce
    Growth Hormone (Somatotropin)
  18. What do the Mammotrophs produce
  19. What do the Thyrotrophs produce
    Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
  20. What do the Corticotrophs produce
    • Pro-OpioMelanoCortin (POMC) which contains
    • Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
    • Corticotropin (ACTH)
    • Lipotropin (LPH)
    • Endorphins
    • Enkephalins
  21. What do the Gonadotrophs produce
    • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    • Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
  22. Immunohistochemistry
    The method for precise identification of endocrine cells in the adenohypophysis by using specific antibodies
  23. What is found in the Pars Tuberalis
    • Some basophilic cells that contain secretory granules of FSH and LH
    • However, no specific hormones are known to be secreted
  24. Pars intermedia has what role
    It is rudimentary in humans but contains colloid filled follicles (Rathkes cysts)
  25. What is the Hypothalamic source of Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH)
    • Arcuate Nucleus
    • "Noahs Arc Grew to be Dope"
  26. What is the Hypothalamic source of Somatostatin
    • Arcuate, Paraventricular, Periventricular nuclei
    • "S-APP"
  27. What is the Hypothalamic source of Dopamine
    • Arcuate nucleus
    • "Noahs Arc Grew to be Dope!"
  28. What is the Hypothalamic source of Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
    • Arcuate, Medial Paraventricular, and Periventricular Nuclei
    • "C-PAmP"
  29. What is the Hypothalamic source of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
    • Arcuate, Ventromedial, Dorsal, Paraventricular Nuclei
    • "G-PAD V as apposed to IPAD five"
  30. What is the Hypothalamic source of Thyrotropin- releasing hormone
    • Ventromedial, Dorsal, Paraventricular Nuclei
    • "TV Prime Dime"
  31. What is the effect of Somatostatin
    Inhibition of Growth hormone secretion and synthesis
  32. What is the effect of Dopamine
    Inhibition of Prolactin synthesis and secretion
  33. What is the effect of Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
    • Stimulate POMC synthesis
    • Stimulate release of ACTH
  34. What is the effect of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
    Stimulation of LH and FSH synthesis and secretion
  35. What is the effect of Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
    Stimulation of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and prolactin synthesis and secretion
  36. Glucocorticoids in the adrenals are released by the presence of
    ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)
  37. FSH has what effect on the Ovaries and Testis
    • Increase release of Estrogen from the Ovaries
    • Spermatogenesis in the Testies
  38. LH has what effect on the Ovaries and Testis
    • Progesterone secretion in the Ovaries
    • Testosterone release in the Testies
  39. What are the primary effects of Somatotropin in the body
    • Stimulation of growth in bones
    • Release of free fatty acids from Adipose tissue
  40. Pars Nervosa has what characteristics
    • Found in the Neurohypophysis
    • Has no secretory cells
    • Has Pituicytes and about 100,000 unmyelinated axons of neurosecretory neurons that terminate near capillaries
  41. Herring bodies
    Distentions of axons that contain hormones and is found in the Neurohypophysis
  42. What are the hormones found in the distentions of Herring body axons
    • Oxytocin - Stimulates uterine contraction & milk ejection
    • ADH - Increases water permeability in kidneys
  43. Oxytocin can be found where in the hypothalamus
    • Paraventricular nucleus
    • "Oxytocin stimulates a Pair of breasts"
  44. ADH can be found where in the Hypothalamus
    Supraoptic nucleus
  45. Hypothalamo-hypophysial tract
    The tract that hormones from the Supraoptic and Paraventricular nuclei of the Thalamus follow to enter the pars nervosa
  46. Pituicytes
    • Glial cells found in the Pars nervosa which surround the axons of the neurosecretory cells
    • They retract from the axon to enable passage of hormones from the Herring bodies to the pericapillary space