Organization of the Nervous System/Chemical Signaling
What are the two divisions of the forebrain?
What are the three key areas of the telencephalon?
Neocortex; Basal ganglia; Limbic system
What are the two key areas of the diencephalon?
What are the two key areas included in the mesencephalon?
Ventral tegmental area; Substantia Nigra
What are the two divisions of the hindbrain?
What are the two key areas of the metencephalon?
A key structure in the mylencephalon is the _________, which is responsible for _______________.
Medulla; regulating vital functions such as respiration
In the spinal cord white matter is composed of _________ while grey matter is composed of _________.
Mylenated axons; Neuronal cell bodies
The pons or _________ is involved in the regulation of _________, _________, & _________.
Reticular formation; arousal, attention, sleep
The pons also contains the ________, which has the highest concentration of noradrenergic cell bodies and the ________ which has the highest concentration of serotonergic cell bodies.
Locus coeruleus; Raphae nuclei
What brain area is responsible for motor coordination and learning?
Where is another name for the mesencephalon?
The tegmentum of the midbrain contains the PAG (an area responsible for ________), the substantia nigra (an area responsible for _________), and the ventral tegmental area (an area responsible for _________)
Painkilling; initiation of movement; reward
The _________ is considered the sensor relay station of the brain.
What is the role of the basal ganlia?
Motor initiation and control
The _________ or _________ cortex is essential for the formation of basic implicit strategy and is one of the oldest components of the mammalian brain.
The nucleus accumbens is involved in ___________.
What brain area is responsible for reinforcing drug seeking behaviors in addicts?
What did Otto Loewi's experiment show?
That synaptic signaling is a chemical process not an electrical process
From least powerful to most powerful what are the three types of synapses?
What is the name for pre-synaptic receptors that bind released neurotransmitter and inhibit further release from the pre-synaptic neuron?
What are three mechanisms used to inactivate released neurotransmitter?
Enzymatic breakdown within the synaptic cleft
Reuptake of neurotransmitter via pre-synaptic transporters
Reuptake of neurotransmitter by surrounding glial cells
What are the two primary types of post-synaptic neurotransmitter receptors?
Metabotropic (G-protein coupled)
Which type of neurotransmitter receptor is composed of 4-5 protein subunits?
Which type of neurotransmitter receptor is composed of a single protein with 7 membrane spanning domains?
T/F Ionotropic receptors affect post-synaptic changes more rapidly than metabotropic receptors.
T/F Ionotropic receptor activation causes more widespread change in the post-synaptic cell than activation of metabotropic receptors.
Once they bind neurotransmitter metabotropic receptors activate a __________ which in turn activates _________.
Coupled G protein; Effector enzymes
Effector enzymes release 2nd messenger molecules (most commonly ________) which activate other molecules such as ____________.
cAMP; Protein kinases
Tyrosine kinase receptors bind _____________ causing activation of intercellular protein kinases that are critical to the ________ and _______ of neurons.
What were the two neurotrophic factors that were discussed in class?
Nerve growth factor (trkA)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (trkB)
What is the role of neurotrophic factors in addiction?
Drugs cause an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factors and this leads to abnormal reorganization of the neurons in the brain
Give the ten ways a drug can alter synaptic transmission.
Act as NT precursor
Inhibit NT synthesis
Inhibit NT vessicle storage
Inhibit NT release
Stimulate NT release
Stimulate post-synaptic receptors
Inhibit NT degradation
Block NT reuptake
Stimulate NT autoreceptors
T/F Neurotransmitters can act as endocrine hormones, traveling through the blood and affecting changes in cells throughout the body.
T/F Stress often weakens drug effects
T/F Rats allowed to self-administer a cocaine infusion will increase self-administration following an acute stressor
What three things discussed in class have been scientifically shown to reinstate drug seeking behavior (cause relapse)?