PSYCH 454 - Neuroscience II

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PSYCH 454 - Neuroscience II
2011-06-20 19:35:30
nervous system chemical signaling

Organization of the Nervous System/Chemical Signaling
Show Answers:

  1. What are the two divisions of the forebrain?
    Telencephalon; Diencephalon
  2. What are the three key areas of the telencephalon?
    Neocortex; Basal ganglia; Limbic system
  3. What are the two key areas of the diencephalon?
    Thalamus; Hypothalamus
  4. What are the two key areas included in the mesencephalon?
    Ventral tegmental area; Substantia Nigra
  5. What are the two divisions of the hindbrain?
    Metencephalon; Mylencephalon
  6. What are the two key areas of the metencephalon?
    Cerebellum; Pons
  7. A key structure in the mylencephalon is the _________, which is responsible for _______________.
    Medulla; regulating vital functions such as respiration
  8. In the spinal cord white matter is composed of _________ while grey matter is composed of _________.
    Mylenated axons; Neuronal cell bodies
  9. The pons or _________ is involved in the regulation of _________, _________, & _________.
    Reticular formation; arousal, attention, sleep
  10. The pons also contains the ________, which has the highest concentration of noradrenergic cell bodies and the ________ which has the highest concentration of serotonergic cell bodies.
    Locus coeruleus; Raphae nuclei
  11. What brain area is responsible for motor coordination and learning?
    The cerebellum
  12. Where is another name for the mesencephalon?
  13. The tegmentum of the midbrain contains the PAG (an area responsible for ________), the substantia nigra (an area responsible for _________), and the ventral tegmental area (an area responsible for _________)
    Painkilling; initiation of movement; reward
  14. The _________ is considered the sensor relay station of the brain.
  15. What is the role of the basal ganlia?
    Motor initiation and control
  16. The _________ or _________ cortex is essential for the formation of basic implicit strategy and is one of the oldest components of the mammalian brain.
    Limbic, Cingulate
  17. The nucleus accumbens is involved in ___________.
  18. What brain area is responsible for reinforcing drug seeking behaviors in addicts?
    Nucleus accumbens
  19. What did Otto Loewi's experiment show?
    That synaptic signaling is a chemical process not an electrical process
  20. From least powerful to most powerful what are the three types of synapses?
    • Axodendritic
    • Axosomatic
    • Axoaxonic
  21. What is the name for pre-synaptic receptors that bind released neurotransmitter and inhibit further release from the pre-synaptic neuron?
  22. What are three mechanisms used to inactivate released neurotransmitter?
    • Enzymatic breakdown within the synaptic cleft
    • Reuptake of neurotransmitter via pre-synaptic transporters
    • Reuptake of neurotransmitter by surrounding glial cells
  23. What are the two primary types of post-synaptic neurotransmitter receptors?
    • Ionotropic
    • Metabotropic (G-protein coupled)
  24. Which type of neurotransmitter receptor is composed of 4-5 protein subunits?
  25. Which type of neurotransmitter receptor is composed of a single protein with 7 membrane spanning domains?
  26. T/F Ionotropic receptors affect post-synaptic changes more rapidly than metabotropic receptors.
  27. T/F Ionotropic receptor activation causes more widespread change in the post-synaptic cell than activation of metabotropic receptors.
  28. Once they bind neurotransmitter metabotropic receptors activate a __________ which in turn activates _________.
    Coupled G protein; Effector enzymes
  29. Effector enzymes release 2nd messenger molecules (most commonly ________) which activate other molecules such as ____________.
    cAMP; Protein kinases
  30. Tyrosine kinase receptors bind _____________ causing activation of intercellular protein kinases that are critical to the ________ and _______ of neurons.
    Neurotrophic factors
  31. What were the two neurotrophic factors that were discussed in class?
    • Nerve growth factor (trkA)
    • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (trkB)
  32. What is the role of neurotrophic factors in addiction?
    Drugs cause an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factors and this leads to abnormal reorganization of the neurons in the brain
  33. Give the ten ways a drug can alter synaptic transmission.
    • Act as NT precursor
    • Inhibit NT synthesis
    • Inhibit NT vessicle storage
    • Inhibit NT release
    • Stimulate NT release
    • Stimulate post-synaptic receptors
    • Block receptors
    • Inhibit NT degradation
    • Block NT reuptake
    • Stimulate NT autoreceptors
  34. T/F Neurotransmitters can act as endocrine hormones, traveling through the blood and affecting changes in cells throughout the body.
  35. T/F Stress often weakens drug effects
  36. T/F Rats allowed to self-administer a cocaine infusion will increase self-administration following an acute stressor
  37. What three things discussed in class have been scientifically shown to reinstate drug seeking behavior (cause relapse)?
    • Cues associated with taking the drug
    • Taking a small quantity of the drug
    • Stress