Chapter 2

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  1. Atomic Force Microscope
    A type of scanning probe microscope. It can be used to study surfaces of objects at high magnification by moving a probe over the specimen's surface
  2. Bright-Field Microscope
    A microscope that illuminates the specimen directly with bright light and forms a dark image on a brighter background
  3. Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CSLM)
    A light microscope in which laser-derived light scans across the specimen at a single plane of focus; stray light from other parts of the specimen is blocked out to give an image with excellent contrast and resolution
  4. Dark-Field Microscope
    A microscope that brightly illuminates the specimen while leaving the background dark
  5. Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) Microscopy
    Microscopy that combines two beams of plane-polarized light after passing through a specimen; their interference is used to reate the image
  6. Differential Staining
    Procedures that divide microbes into separate groups based on staining properties
  7. Fixation
    The process in which the internal and external structures of cells and organisms are preserved and fixed in position
  8. Fluorescence Microscopy
    A type of microscopy that exposes a specimen to light of a specific wavelength and then forms an image from the fluorescent light produced; usually the specimen is stained with a fluorescent dye (fluorochrome)
  9. Gram Stain
    A differential staining procedure that divides bacteria into gram-positive and gram-negative groups based on their ability to retain crystal violet when decolorized with an organic solvent such as ethanol
  10. Negative Staining
    A staining procedure in which a dye is used to make the background dark while the specimen is unstaineed
  11. Parfocal
    Term used to describe a microscope that retains proper focus when the objectives are changed
  12. Phase-Contrast Microscope
    A microscope that converts slight differences in refractive index and cell density into easily observed differences in light intensity
  13. Refractive Index
    A measure of how much a substance deflects a light of ray from a straigh path as it passes from one medium to another
  14. Resolution
    The ability of a microscope to separate or distinguish between small objects that are close together
  15. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
    An electron microscope that scans a beam of electrons over the surface of a specimen and forms an image of the surface from the electrons that are emitted by it
  16. Simple Staining
    Staining a specimen with a single dye
  17. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
    A microscope in which an image is formed by passing an electron beam through a specimen and focusing the scattered electrons with magnetic lenses
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Chapter 2
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