Chapter 3 Vocab

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Chapter 3 Vocab
2011-06-02 22:52:38

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  1. Bacillus
    A rod-shaped bacterial or archaeal cell
  2. Capsule
    A layer of well-organized material, not easily washed off, lying outside the cell wall of some microbes
  3. Cell Envelope
    The plasma membrane and all surroundinglayers external to it
  4. Chemotaxis
    The movement of a microorganismtoward chemical attractants and away from chemical repellents
  5. Coccus
    A spherical bacterial or archaeal cell
  6. Endospore
    An extremely heat- and chemical-resistant, dormant, thick-walled spore that develops within some gram-positive bacteria
  7. Fimbriae
    Fine, hairlike protein appendages on some bacterial and archaeal cells; some help attach cells to surfaces, and others are involved in a type of twitching motility; also called pili
  8. Fluid Mosaic Model
    The currently accepted model of cell membranes in which the membrane is a lipid bilayer with integral proteins buried in the lipid and peripheral proteins more loosely attached to the membrane surface
  9. Gas Vacuole
    A proteinaceous cytoplasmic organelle composed of clusters of gas-filled vesicles; used by aquatic bacteria and archaea to change location in a water column
  10. Glycocalyx
    A network of polysaccharides extending from the surface of some cells
  11. Inclusions
    Granules of organic or inorganic material in the cytoplasm of many bacteria and archaea
  12. Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs)
    Molecules in the outer membrane of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria; they contain both lipid and polysaccharide
  13. Nucleoid
    An irregularly shaped region where the genetic material of bacteria and archaea is found
  14. Peptidoglycan
    A component of bacterial cell walls. It is composed of long chains of alternating N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid residues, with the chains linked to each other by short chains of amino acids
  15. Periplasmic Space
    The space between the plasma membrane and outermost layers of the bacterial cell wall
  16. Plasmid
    A double-stranded DNA molecule that can exist and replicate independently of the chromosome or may be integrated with it. Plasmids are not required for the cell's growth and reproduction
  17. Porin Proteins
    Proteins that form channels for the transport of small molecules across the outer membrane of gram-negative bacterial cell walls
  18. Sex Pili
    Thin protein appendages required for bacterial conjugation; cells with sex pilidonate DNA to recipient cells
  19. S-Lauer
    A regularly structured layer composed of protein or glycoprotein that lies on the surface of many bacteria and archaea
  20. Slime Layer
    A layer of diffuse, unorganized, easily removed material lying outside the cell wall
  21. Spirillum
    A rigid, spiral-shaped bacterial or archaeal cell
  22. Spirochete
    A flexible, spiral-shaped bacterium with periplasmic flagella