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what are some benefits associated with living in a group?
- resource acquisition
- predation avoidance
what are some costs associated with living in a group?
- competition ( experiment in fieldfares showed that increase in colony size decreases nestling survival)
- increased risk of disease
- increase opportunity for reproductive interference or suppression
what are some predation avoidance benefits of living in a group?
- reduce encounter rate with the predator ( protected sites and selfish herd)
- reduce success of predator ( dilution, vigilance, confusion and mobbing )
what does stoting in gazelle do?
it reduces risk of predation, and shows rump to predator.if gazelle stot they have higher chance of escaping.
what are some benefits associated with resource access when living in a group?
- passive attraction to limited resource ( provide predator dilution benefit)
- active attraction due to joint benefits ( information transfer, reduce path overlap and group foraging and communal hunting)
- Information transfer in evening bats ( leaders produce and followers scrounge)
what is a benefit of a cooperative hunting?
it permits capture of prey larger than possible