Micro: Ch. 16

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Anonymous
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Micro: Ch. 16
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2010-03-02 20:59:59
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micro chapter 16
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chapter 16 micro immunology vocab and questions
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  1. susceptibility
    lack of resistance
  2. immunity
    ability to ward of disease
  3. innate immunity
    defenses against any pathogen
  4. adaptive immunity
    defenses against specific pathogens
  5. Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs)
    plasma membrane receptors (flagella, LPS, techoic acids)
  6. Function of TLRs
    stimulates cytokines which stimulate innate/adaptive immunity
  7. Physical Factors: Epidermis
    tightly packed cells with keratin and protective proteins
  8. Physical Factors: ciliary escalator
    microbes trapped in mucus transport away from lungs
  9. Physical Factors: lacrimal apparatus
    washes eyes
  10. Chemical Factors: pH of skin
    pH 3-5
  11. Chemical Factors: lysozyme
    in perspiration, tears, saliva, and tissue fluids
  12. Chemical Factors: pH of gastric juice
    pH 1.2-3
  13. Chemical Factors: transferrins
    in blood, bind iron
  14. Chemical Factors: NO (nitric oxide)
    ATP production
  15. 3 forms of microbial antagonism
    • 1. competitive exclusion
    • 2. bacteriocins
    • 3. alter conditions (ex. lactic acid production)
  16. leukocytosis
    increased WBC count
  17. leukopenia
    decrease WBC count
  18. neutrophils
    • -PMNs/polymorphonuclear leukocytes/polymorphs
    • -phagocytic
  19. 3 lymphocytes
    • 1. T cells
    • 2. B cells
    • 3. Natural Killer Cells
  20. Natural Killer Cells
    • -blood, spleen, lymph nodes
    • -kill infected cells
    • -release toxic granules perferin/granzymes that make holes in target cell membrane
  21. 3 WBCs
    • neutrophils
    • basophils
    • eosinophils
  22. basophils
    produce histamine
  23. eosinophils
    toxic to parasites and some phagocytosis
  24. dendritic cells
    initiate adaptive immune response
  25. monocytes
    • -phagocytic as mature macrophages
    • -fixed macrophages in lung, liver, and bronchii
    • -wandering macrophages roam tissues
  26. lymphocytes
    involved in specific immunity
  27. Inflammation
    • -edema (symptoms)
    • -acute phase protiens activated
    • -vasodilation
    • -margination/emigration of WBCs
    • -tissue repair
  28. histamine/kinins
    vasodilation; increased permeability of blood vessels
  29. prostoglandins
    intensifies histamine and kinin effects
  30. leukotrienes
    increased permeability of blood vessels; phagocytic attachment
  31. chemicals released by damaged cells
    • -histamine
    • -kinins
    • -prostoglandins
    • -leukotrienes
  32. fever
    abnormally high body temp
  33. What temp is the hypothalamus usually set at?
    37 degrees C
  34. Endogenous pyrogen
    gram-neg. endotoxin cause phagocytes to release interleukin-1
  35. ______ releases ______ that reset the hypothalamus to a higher body temp
    hypothalamus, prostoglandins
  36. shivering
    body increase rate of metabolism which increases body temp
  37. how to lower body temp:
    eliminate IL-1
  38. advantages of fever
    • 1. increase transferrins (binding iron)
    • 2. increase IL-1 activity
    • 3. interferon more effective
  39. disadvantages of fever
    • 1. tachycardia (rapid heart rate)
    • 2. acidosis (acid in blood; pH imbalance)
    • 3. dehydration/electrolyte imbalance
    • 4. seizures
    • 5. delirium
    • 6. coma
  40. Complement System
    • -opsonization
    • -inflammation
    • -cytolysis
  41. opsonization
    enhancement of phagocytosis by coating with C3b
  42. cytolysis
    MAC (membrane attack complex)
  43. How many proteins produced by liver in CS
    30 proteins
  44. T/F: there are clotting factors in CS
    false
  45. T/F: amount of reactive product amplified with each reaction
    true
  46. T/F: inactive until split into fragments
    true
  47. T/F: one reaction triggers another
    true
  48. 3 pathways of CS
    • -classical
    • -alternative
    • -lectin
  49. Classical Pathway
    antibodies involved
  50. Alternative Pathway
    • no antibodies involved
    • factors B, P, D
  51. Lectin Pathway
    • lectin: carbs
    • -starts process
  52. Ways Bacteria Evade CS
    • capsules
    • surface lipid-carbs
    • enzymatic digestion of C5a
  53. How do bacteria use capsules to evade CS
    prevent C activation
  54. How do bacteria use surface lipid-carbs to evade CS?
    prevent MAC formation

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