Chapter 4 Vocab

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  1. Cilia
    Threadlike appendages extending from the surface of some protists that beat rhythmially to propel them. They are membrane-bound cylinders with a complex internal array of microtubules, usually in a 9+2 pattern
  2. Cristae
    Infoldings of the inner mitochondrial membrane
  3. Cytoskeleton
    A network of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules, and other components in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that helps give them shape, functions during cell division, and helps move materials in the cytoplasm
  4. Endocytosis
    The process in which a cell takes up solutes or particles by enclosing them in vesicles pinched off from its plasma membrane
  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    A system of membranous tubules and flattened sacs (cisternae) in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells; rough endoplamic reticulum (RER) bears ribosomes on its surface; smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) lacks ribosomes
  6. Flagellum
    A thin, threadlike appendage on many cells that is responsible for their motility
  7. Golgi Apparatus
    A membranous eukaryotic organelle composed of stacks of flattened sacs (cisternae) that is involved in many processes including packaging and modifying materials for secretion
  8. Lysosome
    A spherical membranous eukaryotic organelle that contains hydrolytic enzymes and is responsible for the intracellular digestion of substances
  9. Microfilaments (actin filaments)
    Protein filaments, about 4 to 7 nm in diameter, that are present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and play a role in cell sturcture and motion
  10. Microtubules
    Small cylindrs, about 25nm in diameter, made of tublin proteins and present in the cytoplasm, cilia, and flagella of eukaryotic cells. They are involved in cell structure and movement
  11. Mitochondrion
    The eukaryotic organelle that is the site of cellular respiration. It provides most of a nonphotosynthetic cell's energy under oxic conditions
  12. Nuclear Envelope
    The complex double-membrane structure forming the outer boundary of the nucleus
  13. Nucleolus
    An organelle located within the nucleus and not bounded by a membrane; it is the location of ribosomal RNA synthesis and the assembly of ribosomal subunits
  14. Nucleus
    The eukaryoticc organelle enclosed by a double-membrane that contains the cell's chromosomes
  15. Organelle
    A structure within or on a cell that performs specific functions and is related to the cell in a way similar to that of an organ to the body of a multicellular organism
  16. Phagocytosis
    The endocytotic process in which a cell encloses large particles in a membrane-delimited phagocytic vacuole (phagosome) and engulfs them
  17. Proteasome
    A cylindrical complex found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that is responsible for the degradation of proteins
  18. Secretory Pathway
    The process used by eukaryotic cells to synthesize proteins and lipids, followed by secretion or delivery to organelles or the plasma membrane; involves the endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus and secetory vesicles
  19. Septa
    Cross walls that divide microbial cells
  20. Thylakoid
    A flattened sac in the chloroplast stroma that contains photosynthetic pigments and the proteins and other molecules that convert light energy into ATP
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Chapter 4 Vocab
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