Craniofacial Development S2M1

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  1. What is the signal for Outgrowth in facial development
    Fibroblast Growth Factors
  2. What is the signal for patterning in facial development
    • Sonic Hedgehog
    • WNT & BMP
  3. Patterning of arches is dependent on
    HOX genes carried by migrating neural crest cells
  4. HOX gene expression is regulated by
  5. Deficiencies or excesses of Retinoids (retinoic acid) have what effect on facial development
    Craniofacial abnormalities
  6. What are the two parts of the neurocranium
    • Membranous
    • Cartilaginous
  7. The flat bones in the membranous neurocranium are derived from
    Neural crest cells and paraxial mesoderm
  8. What does the membranous portion of the neurocranium consist of
    Flat bones that surround the brain as a vault
  9. Where are the bones in the neurocranium derived from
    Those anterior to the pituitary gland are derived from neural crest cells, and those posterior from occipital somites
  10. What does the cartilaginous neurocranium consist of
    The bones that make the base of the skull
  11. What portion of the neurocranium is formed by Endochondral ossification
    • Ethmoid
    • Sphenoid
    • Base of Occipital
    • Temporal (petrous portion)
    • "BEST portion"
  12. What bones in the skull are derived from membranous ossification
    • Frontal
    • Parietal
    • Occipital (top portion)
    • Squamous Temporal
  13. The bones of the face are derived primarily from what arches
    The first two pharyngeal arches
  14. How is membranous ossification initiated in the facial bones
    Neural crest cells invading the first two pharyngeal arches providing the mesenchyme for membranous ossification
  15. The Dorsal part of the first pharyngeal arch forms
    • Maxilla
    • Zygomatic bone
    • Squamous part of the Temporal
  16. The ventral portion of the 1st pharyngeal arch forms
  17. Malleus Incus are formed buy what arch
  18. What are the first bones to ossify and when does this happen
    • Malleus, Incus, and Stapes
    • 4th month of development
  19. Laryngeal cartilages (Cricoid and Thyroid cartilages) develop from which arch
    4th and 6th
  20. What bones in the viscerocranium develop from cartilaginous ossification
    Malleus, Incus, Stapes, Hyoid, and Laryngeal cartilages
  21. What bones in the viscerocranium developed from intermembranous ossification
    • Squamous temporal
    • Maxillary
    • Zygomatic bones
    • Mandible
  22. The stapes develops from what arch
  23. What results when the oropharyngeal membrane does not rupture
    Polyhydramnios - excess of Amnionic fluid
  24. Amniotic fluid is formed by what
    Maternal circulation and the fetal urine from kidneys
  25. How is the amnionic fluid resorbed
    Fetus swallows and it is absorbed into the fetal circulation, the excess is removed from the placenta and passed into the maternal circulation
  26. Duodenal, and Esophogeal atresia results in
  27. What can polyhydramnios lead to
    • Over extended uterus
    • Premature rupture of membranes
    • Early detachment of placenta
    • Umbilical cord prolapse (cord precedes baby)
  28. Amniotic fluid is especially important for the development of
  29. Each pharyngeal arch is supplied by
    Its own cranial nerve, artery, and cartilage
  30. What nerves supply the arches respectively
    • 1st - Trigeminal (V)
    • 2nd - Facial (VII)
    • 3rd - Glossopharyngeal (IX)
    • 4th - Superior laryngeal branch of the vagus (X)
    • 6th - Recurrent laryngeal branch (X)
    • "Same order as tongue and epiglottis taste innervation"
  31. The external auditory meatus and auditory tube develop from
    Pouching between the 1st and 2nd arches
  32. Palatine tonsil develops from
    Invagination between the 2nd and 3rd arches
  33. The thymus develops from
    Invagination between the 3rd and 4th arches
  34. Lateral cervical cyst
    Develops between the 2nd and 3rd arches and descends to just anterior to the sternocleidomastoid
  35. The parathyroid develops from
    • Superior from the 4th arch
    • Inferior from the 3rd arch
  36. DiGeorges syndrome
    Deficiency or excess of Retinoic acid in development causing failure of the 3rd pouch

    • Cardiac defects
    • Abnormal facial development
    • Thymic Hypoplasia
    • Cleft palate
    • Hypocalcemia
    • "CATCH 22"
    • Immune deficiency
  37. The body of the tongue develops from
    1st pharyngeal arch
  38. The 3rd arch overgrows the 2nd arch to develop
    Posterior part of the tongue and Eustachian tube both innervated by CN IX
  39. The epiglottis and root of the tongue develop from
    4th and 6th Pharyngeal arches and are innervated by CN X
  40. Most tongue muscles develop from
    Occipital somites
  41. What can be the result of the thyroid not developing properly
    Mental retardation (Cretinism)
  42. Thyroglossal cyst
    Cyst formed from the remnants of the thyroglossal duct, usually found in the hyoid region
  43. The intermaxillary segment gives rise to
    • Philtrum of the upper lip
    • Median part of the maxillary bone
    • Four incisor teeth
    • Triangular primary palate
  44. What happens in locational changes in the development of the tongue and palate
    The tongue drops between the palate before the two ends fuse
  45. What is the most common facial defect
    Unilateral cleft lip
  46. The entire pharyngeal apparatus is apparent when
    4th week of development
  47. Teacher Collins syndrome
    Underdevelopment of the maxillary portion of the 1st arch
  48. Robin Sequence
    Underdevelopment of the mandibular portion of the 1st arch
  49. The major portion of the definitive palate develops from
    Lateral palatine shelves from maxillary prominence
  50. What is the only sinus that is present at birth
  51. Constrictors of the pharynx develop from
    Arch 4
  52. Intrinsic muscles of the Larynx develop from
    Arch 6
  53. What is the most common site of ectopic thyroid
    Foramen cecum (root of tongue)
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Craniofacial Development S2M1
2011-08-12 22:16:33
Ross S2M1

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