threats to: self-concept, self-esteem, relationship rewards
Subjects: 6 mo. w/no siblings
Watch mother interacting w/doll or book that makes noises
IV: Mom plays w/doll vs. non social toy
DV: Facial expressions & behavior
Results: Negative affect doll > Toy
~~~Masciuch & Kienapple~~~
Subjects: 4.5 mos. - 7 yrs. old
IV: Mom interacts w/infant vs. same-aged peer
Results: 8.5 mos. = some jealousy reactions
1.5 yrs. = definie jealousy
3.5 yrs. = differences in jealousy over peer vs. infant (peer > infant)
* Jealousy not effected by rival's age @ younger age
Jealousy over Infidelity
--Frequently cause for divorce
--Motive for murder
--12-16% of murder across cultures
Believes men are hard-wired/programmed to like certain hip-to-waist ratio (.7)
Sexual jealousy mechanism
JSIM = Jealousy as a specific innate module theory
Evolutionary Psychology Perspective
-Men's jealousy triggered by sexual acts
-Women's jealousy triggered by emotional bonding/love
Sexual Jealousy Module
Problem = Cuckoldry
Emotional Jealousy Module
Problem = Resource diversion
~~~ Buss et. al. Study ~~~
Forced-choice hypothetical scenario:
What would upset you more?
(a) imagining emotional infidelity
(b) imagining sexual infidelity
% choosing sexual in U.S.:
25% of women
50% of men
Contrast between JSIM & Social-Cognitive approaches
Type of threat & role of cognitive appraisal: Cognition confined to detection of infidelity
Emotional process specific to infidelity: Yes. Mechanisms specific to mating.
Type of threat & role of cognitive appraisal: Cognition/Appraisal imp., many possible threats (ex: to self, to relationship)
Emotional process specific to infidelity: No. Same jealousy process across interpersonal contexts
~~~Adult Study of REAL Infidelity~~~
Subjects: 196 adults
Measures: (1) F-C Infidelity ?s
(2) Reactions to mate's actual infidelity
--Degree of focus on sexual vs. emotional infidelity
Results: Actual infidelity: on ave, Focus on EMOTIONAL > SEXUAL
----->problem for JSIM: men did not overall report sexual aspects more troublesome
*Men & Women's experiences more similar than different
Definition of Envy
An unpleasant emotional experience that arises in a social situation in which one desires what another possesses
~~~Smith & colleagues~~~
-differentiate btwn. "benign" & "malicious" envy
----Malicious envy includes some form of anger, hostility, or ill will
~~~D'Arms & Kerr~~~
-Argue that there is no such thing as benign envy, which is just desire/longing.
It is only envy if one not only experiences an unpleasant emotion due to the rival having something one desires-but furthermore desires that he/she lose it.
-Envy is type of anger that arises when one has a frustrated desire for something another possesses, which one feels one should & could have.
~~~Smith & colleagues~~~
Differentiate "objective" from "subjective" resentment
objective: others would agree that there is an injustice
subjective: the enviers are likely not to find social support for their sense of grievance, which is more aptly termed envy
Pleasure at another's pain
--Linked to envious reactions
~~~White & Mullen (1989)~~~
Proposed that jealousy should not be viewed as a distinct emotion or even a blend of emotions, but rather as a label for a complex interpersonal situation tht elicits various negative emotional reactions.
Found subjects offered diff. emotional labels depending on what aspect of situation was highlighted
-Proposed 6 diff. emotional reactions that can be part of an envious episode.
~~~Brosnan & de Waal (2003)~~~
Capuchin monkey experiment with fairness.
Factors that arouse envy
Change in status
Specific Hard-wired triggers
Importance of a third party (the Other)
--can be an individual or a social group
By the very act of envying, the envier implicitly accepts the value system of the other(s)
Studies on envy across cultures
--Swat people particularly prone to envy
Guidelines offered by Judaism to counter envy
1. Try not to compare one's own achievements to others' but be the best one can be
2. Focus not on the envied person but rather on the quality he possesses to channel energy towards possessing it
3. Accept what God has given & hope things will be diff. in afterlife
The "evil eye"
Gives envier a sense of power
Causes envied to fear loss
"Sex Differences in Jealousy"
~~David M. Buss, and colleagues~~
Males face cuckoldry
Females face loss of time, resources, & commitment from male
STUDY 1: Subjective Distress over a partner's external involvement
--males reported greater distress in response to sexual infidelity than emotional infidelity
STUDY 2: Physiological responses to a partner's external involvement
--Men showed significant increases in EDA during sexual imagergy compared w/emotional imagery
--Women showed greater EDA to emotional infidelity
STUDY 3: Contexts that activate the jealousy mechanism
--Direct experience of relevant context during development may be necessary for activation of sex-linked weighting of jealousy activation
"Double-Shot" or "Two-for-One"
-Men tend to think sexual infidelity would be more distressing because they infer that if a woman has sex with another man, she is probably also in love with him.
-Women tend to believe that men can have sex without being in love.
"cognitive load manipulation"
--asked subjects to remember string of 7 digits while answering ?s
Did not change males' responses
Females shifted toward picking sexual infidelity as more powerful jealousy trigger
--Suggests F responses may reflect inferences--tendency of subjects to give answers that present a desired impression of themselves
Used to describe patients who display a conviction, most often delusional, that their mate is cheating on them.