Biology 111

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Biology 111
2010-03-02 22:49:14
Tests #2

Note card for bio 111 test #2
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  1. Why are Charophtyes the link?
    • Chloroplasts
    • Homologous to land plants
    • Analogous to algae
    • Hint: know what these terms mean
    • Similar morphology
    • Live in transitional habitats between water and land
  2. What is homology
    A similarity between two or more structures that is due to inheritance from a common ancestor
  3. What is analogy
    A resemblance in function, often appearance as well, between two structures that is due to convergent evolution rather than common ancestry
  4. What is a root tip?
    a thimble shaped mass of cells, produced by the root apical meristem, that protects the meristem; the organ that perceives the gravitational stimulus in root gravitropism
  5. What is Cohesive - Tension Transport?
    a way to move water up a tree by using the characteristic of water that it sticks to its self
  6. What is Phenotypic plasticity?
    The ability of plants to alter their structure to better collect resources
  7. What is an abscission zone?
    The area where the leaf cuts its self off from the tree during winter time
  8. What is coevolution?
    the influence of closely associated species on each other in their evolution; this allows for specialization of plants and their pollinators
  9. What is the gametangia?
    A bryophyte innovation to protect the gametes.
  10. What is a sporophyte?
    the asexual and usually diploid phase, producing spores from which the gametophytes arise.
  11. What is a cuticle?
    the innovation that prevents plants from desiccation, ultraviolet radiation and fungal infection.
  12. What is a gammae?
    Used for vegitative reproduction in liverworts and found in cups.
  13. What is a peristome?
    part of capsule sensitivity to humidity; opens up to release spores.
  14. What are bryophytes?
    the group that gave rise to tracheophytes
  15. what is lignin?
    the tracheophyte innovation within the vascular tissue (xylem).
  16. What are microphylls?
    this leaf type is typical in lychophytes but not monilophytes.
  17. What are ophioglossalean ferns?
    the group that has two different leaf segments or types
  18. What are lycopsids and monilophytes?
    this group dominated in the carboniferous.
  19. What is a seed coat?
    a layer around the seed for protection found in gymnosperms.
  20. What is a pollen grain?
    this structure allows for the independent movement of the microgamete to the megagamete across hostile conditions.
  21. What is a serotinous cone?
    this type of cone is adapted to fire.
  22. What is aril?
    this stucture of the taxaceae was adapted for seed dispersal.
  23. What is a Gnetophyte?
    this group shares several characteristics with the angiosperm.
  24. What is cytokinin
    The antagonist to auxin
  25. What is auxin?
    responsible for stem elongation in response to light.
  26. What is abscissic acid?
    plant growth regulator likely to be in high concentration during the dormancy of a seed.
  27. What is double fertilization?
    Neccessary for the development of the embryo and nucleus.
  28. What is a megagametophyte?
    the plant equivalent of an animal egg.
  29. What is the Casparian strip?
    Major barrier to movement in roots.
  30. What is CAM?
    • This is the main photosynthesis system in desert plants.
    • Crassulacean acid metabolism
  31. What is a modified leaf?
    this cup-like structure captures insects and dissolves them.
  32. What is a monocot?
    This group typically has scattered vascular bundles.
  33. What is a periderm?
    This protion of secondary growth is sloughed like a fingernail.