3 study guide

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3 study guide
2011-06-03 14:26:06
study guide

3 study guide
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  1. what is yellow sputum indicative of
    infection-- increased WBC
  2. what bacterial organism should be suspected if the patients sputum is green and fould smelling
    pseudomonas species
  3. list causes of dyspnea
    • inc airway resistance
    • COPD
    • upper airway obstruction
    • decreased lung compliance
    • pulm fibrosis
    • pneumothorax
    • pl effusion
    • abnormal chest wall
    • anxiety
  4. what does the term orthopnea mean and in which pts is it most commonly found
    • difficulty breathing while lying down (supine)
    • COPD
    • chronic cardiac disease
    • obesity
  5. describe kussmaul respirations and in which pts this breathing pattern is most often seen
    • deep, rapid breathing pattern (hyperventilating)
    • pt with diabetic ketoacidosis DKA
  6. list conditions in which asymmetrical chest movement may be observed
    • atelectasis
    • pneumothorax
    • chest deformities
    • flail chest
  7. describe paradoxical respiration and name a condition in which it is most commonly observed
    chest moves in during inspiration and out during expiration, flail chest or other chest trauma
  8. define pedal edema and what causes it
    fluid around the ankles that results from right sided or left sided heart failure
  9. name a condition that results in the trachea shifting toward the side of the body that the condition is affecting
    massive atelectasis
  10. name a condition that results in the trachea shifinting away from the affected side
    tension pneumothorax
  11. which muscles are used for normal ventilation
    diaphragm, external intercostal muscles
  12. what causes the barrel chest appearance in pts with COPD
    • air trapping
    • enlarged accessory muscles of the chest
  13. name 2 conditions in which a hyperresonant percussion note would be heard
    • pneumothorax
    • emphysema
  14. name 2 conditions in which a dull percussion would be heard
    • atelectasis
    • consolidation
    • pl effusion
    • pl thinkening
    • pulm edema
  15. list four conditions that result in heart murmur
    • aortic valve disease
    • mitral valve disease
    • pulmonic valve stenosis
    • tricuspid valve insufficiency
  16. normal values for

    • na- 135 to 145
    • k- 3.5 to 4.5
    • cl- 95-105
  17. why would decreased sodium and potassium levels make weaning a pt from the ventilator more difficult
    both result in muscle weakness
  18. what does an elevated BUN level indicate
    renal failure
  19. how does the resp sys compensate when glucose levels increase in a diabetic patient
    alveolar hyperventilation
  20. what do decreases in Hb level, Hct and RBC count indicates
    inadequate o2-carrying capacity
  21. name 2 conditions that cause a decreased platelet count
    bone marrow diseases, DIC
  22. pts with a decreased platelet count and increase PT are at a greater risk of what occurrence