Chemistry

Card Set Information

Author:
Coco93
ID:
89048
Filename:
Chemistry
Updated:
2011-06-04 09:03:08
Tags:
chemistry
Folders:

Description:
definitions
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Coco93 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Absorbance
    The proportion of incident electromagnetic radiation absorbed by the sample.
  2. Absorption spectrum
    A plot of the proportion ofelectromagnetic radiation absorbed by a substance over a range of wavelengths (or frequencies).
  3. Acetylsalicylic Acid
    An analgesic commonly known as aspirin.
  4. Acid
    A substance that donates hydrogen ions (protons).
  5. Acid-Base Idicator
    A substance whose colour depends on the concentration of H3O+ ions in solution. Indicators are weak acids and bases; their acid form is one colour and their conjugate base is another.
  6. Acid-Base Reaction
    A reaction involving the transfer of a hydrogen ion (proton) from an acid to a base.
  7. Activation Energy
    The energy required by reactants for reaction to occur. This energy is needed to break the bonds between atoms in the reactants to allow products to form.
  8. Activesite
    The location on an enzyme’s surface at which reaction occurs. It is usually a flexible hollow or cavity inthe molecule
  9. Addition Polymerisation
    Reaction of a large number of unsaturated monomers to form a polymer that has the same empirical formula as the monomers.
  10. Addition Reaction
    A reaction in which a molecule binds to an unsaturated hydrocarbon, forming a single carbon-to carbon bond. In this process two reactant molecules becomeone
  11. Adenine
    A base found in nucleic acids such as DNA. It is thecomplementary base of thymine.
  12. Adsorption
    The attraction of one substance to the surfaceof another.
  13. Alcohol
    An organic compound containing the hydroxy functional group, e.g. ethanol (CH3CH2OH).
  14. Aliquot
    A volume of liquid measured by a pipette.
  15. Alkanes
    Hydrocarbons with only single bonds between carbon atoms, which have the general formula CnH2n + 2.
  16. Alkanol
    Systematic name for an alcohol. An organic compound that has the hydroxy functional group attached to an alkane chain, e.g. ethanol, CH3CH2OH.
  17. Alkenes
    Hydrocarbons with one double bond between carbon atoms, which have the general formula CnH2n
  18. Alkyne
    Hydrocarbon with one triple bond between carbon atoms, which have the general formula CnH2n – 2.
  19. Amide
    A compound containing the CONH functional group.This group forms the link between amino acids in proteins.See peptide linkage.
  20. Amine
    An organic molecule containing the NH2 functional group.
  21. Amino acid
    A molecule that contains both an amino group and a carboxy group.
  22. Analgesic
    A drug that relieves pain
  23. Anhydrous
    An anhydrous solid does not contain water molecules in its lattice structure
  24. Aspirin
    A common drug used to treat pain, fever and infl ammation, and to reduce blood clotting. Also known aacetylsalicylic acid
  25. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
    An analytical technique that uses light absorption to measure the concentration of a metal in a sample.
  26. Atomic Emission Spectrometry (AES)
    An analytical technique that uses light emission to measure the concentration and identity of a metal in a sample.
  27. Average Titre
    The value to use in calculating the result of a volumetric analysis. Found by taking the average of three concordant titres.
  28. Back Titration
  29. A technique used when an acid or base is too weak to be analysed by direct titration. The process involves adding an excess of a strong base or acid to the original substance and then determining, by titration, how much of the added chemical remains unreacted.
  30. Base
    A substance that accepts hydrogen ions (protons).
  31. Base Pairs
    • Pairs of complementary bases found in DNA, i.e.
    • (i) adenine (A) and thymine (T), or (ii) cytosine (C) and guanine (G).
  32. Base Peak
    The highest peak in a mass spectrum; it is assigned an intensity of 100%.
  33. Benzene Ring
    A six-carbon ring, C6H6, containing delocalised electrons. Forms compounds by replacing hydrogens with functional groups.
  34. Burette
    An item of volumetric equipment that delivers variable volumes of solution accurately
  35. By-Product
    A substance that is produced at the same time as an intended product in the course of a chemical reaction.
  36. Calibration Graph
    A plot of data involving two variables that is used to determine values for one of the variables
  37. Carbohydrate
    A naturally occurring condensation polymer containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen that has the general formula Cx(H2O)y.
  38. Carbon-13 NMR
    Nuclear magnetic resonance utilising the interaction of the 13C nucleus with an external magnetic field. Used to determine the chemical environment of carbon atoms in compounds.
  39. Carboxy Group
    The functional group COOH.
  40. Carboxlic Acid
    An organic molecule containing the carboxy functional group, e.g. ethanoic acid (CH3COOH).
  41. Carrier Gas
    The gas used as the mobile phase in gas chromatography.
  42. Catalyst
    A substance that increases the rate of a reaction but is not consumed in the reaction
  43. Chemical Analysis
    Identification of the chemicals present in a substance or the measurement of their concentration.
  44. Chemical shift
    Frequency of the signal in the NMR spectrum, relative to the TMS standard.
  45. Chloro Group
    The Cl functional group.
  46. Choroalkane
    A molecule derived from an alkane, containing a Cl functional group.
  47. Chromatogram
    The trace or plot that is obtained when the components of a mixture are separated by chromatography.
  48. Chromotography
    A technique for separating the components of a mixture. The components are carried by a mobile phase (gas or liquid) over the adsorbent surface of a stationary phase, which can be solid or liquid.
  49. Coagulation
    Clumping of denatured protein molecules to form a suspension.
  50. Column Chromotography
    A chromatographic technique in which the stationary phase is contained in a column, as for example in gas chromatography.
  51. Combined Techniques
    A combination of two or more analytical techniques in the same instrument, e.g. gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.
  52. Combustion
    Rapid reaction with oxygen accompanied by the release of large amounts of heat; burning.
  53. Concentration
    A measure of how much solute is dissolved in a unit quantity of solution.
  54. Condensation polymerisation
    Formation of a polymer by condensation reactions.
  55. Condensation Reaction
    A reaction in which two molecules link together, eliminating a small molecule such as water.
  56. Cytosine
    A base found in nucleic acids such as DNA. It is the complementary base of guanine
  57. Denatured
    A change to the structure and shape of a protein that prevents it from functioning.
  58. Deoxyribose
    A five-carbon sugar that is a constituent of DNA.
  59. Deoxyribonucleic Acid
    (DNA) A nucleic acid that carries genetic information in the cells of plants and animals. Each strand is formed by a condensation polymerisation reaction between nucleotide monomers. Hydrogen bonds between complementary bases shape pairs of DNA molecules into a double helix structure.
  60. Desorption
    The breaking of the bonds between a substance and the surface to which the substance is adsorbed
  61. Dilution
    The addition of solvent to make a solution less concentrated.
  62. Eluent
    A liquid used as the mobile phase in chromatography
  63. Emission Spectrum
    A display of the wavelengths of light emitted by a substance. For many metals this appears as coloured lines on a black background.
  64. Empirical formula
    The formula of a compound that indicates the simplest ratio of atoms of each element in the compound
  65. End Point
    The point during a titration when the indicator changes colour.
  66. Enzyme
    A protein molecule that acts as a catalyst for reactions in living things.
  67. Equivalence Point
    A point during a titration when the solutions have been mixed in the mole ratio shown by the reaction equation.
  68. Ester
    An organic compound containing the ester functional group –COO–.
  69. Esterfication Reaction
    The chemical reaction between an alcohol (alkanol) and a carboxylic (alkanoic) acid to form an ester as the main product.
  70. Ethanol
    A two-carbon member of the alkanol homologous series; found in alcoholic drinks.
  71. Ether Linkage
    A functional group that consists of an oxygen linking two hydrocarbons or sugars
  72. Excess Reactant
    A reagent that is not completely consumed in a reaction.
  73. Fermentation
    • The breakdown of sugar solutions, by the
    • action of enzymes in yeasts, into ethanol and carbon dioxide
  74. Finger Print
    In chemical analysis, a spectrum or analysis that is unique to a particular chemical
  75. Flame Ionisation Detecter
    A device used to identify organic compounds leaving a GC column. The compounds are burnt in a hydrogen–oxygen flame and are attracted to electrodes, creating an electric current.
  76. Fragmentation
    The break-up of a molecule into a number of different smaller fragments in a mass spectrometer, the mass of which can be used to identify the molecule.
  77. Free Radicals
    An atom or group of atoms with at least one unpaired electron; this tends to make them highly reactive.
  78. Gas Chromotography
    A form of chromatography in which the mobile phase is a gas. It includes the techniques of gas–liquid chromatography and gas–solid chromatography.
  79. Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry
    A combined analytical technique in which the mass spectrometer replaces the conventional detector in the gas chromatograph.
  80. Gas - Liquid Chromatography
    A very sensitive form of chromatography that is limited to separating compounds that can be vaporised readily without decomposing. It uses an inert gas as the mobile phase and a viscous liquid as the stationary phase
  81. Gas - Solid Chromatography
    A chromatographic technique in which the mobile phase is a gas and the stationary phase an adsorbent solid such as alumina or activated charcoal.
  82. General Gas Equation
    The equation that describes the behaviour of a gas: pV = nRT.
  83. Glycerol
    An alcohol containing three OH groups. A glycerol molecule can react with three molecules of fatty acids to form a fat molecule.
  84. Glycogen
    A carbohydrate that is a means of storing glucose in animals.
  85. Glycosidic (ether) Linkage
    A C–O–C link formed when two monosaccharides combine to form a disaccharide.
  86. Gravimetric Analysis
    A type of analysis that involves precipitation and weighing.
  87. Guanine
    A base found in nucleic acids such as DNA. It is the complementary base of cytosine.
  88. Half Equation
    An equation involving either an oxidation or a reduction process. The electrons lost or gained in this process are shown in the equation
  89. High Performance Liquid Chromatography
    A very sensitive form of chromatography in which the mobile solvent phase is pumped through the stationary phase under high pressure
  90. High perfomance Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry
    A combined analytical technique in which the mass spectrometer replaces the conventional detector in HPLC.
  91. Histone
    A type of protein. DNA wraps around histones to form chromosomes.
  92. Homologous Series
    Organic compounds with the same functional groups in which each member of the groups differs from the previous member by CH2
  93. Hydrogen Bonds
    A strong dipole–dipole attraction that forms between molecules when hydrogen is bonded to one of the electronegative elements oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine.
  94. Hydrolysis
    A reaction in which water is a reactant
  95. Hydroxy Group
    The OH functional group.
  96. Infrared
    An analytical technique that uses the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  97. Limiting Reactant
    The reagent that is completely consumed in a reaction and which determines the amounts of products formed.
  98. LIquid Stationary Phase
    A viscous liquid used as the stationary phase in chromatography. The components of a mixture undergo adsorption to this liquid as they are carried along by the mobile phase.
  99. Mass Spectrometer
    An instrument designed to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of particles.
  100. Mass spectrometry
    An analytical technique that uses the mass-to-charge ratio of atoms, molecules and fragments of molecules to identify substances
  101. Mass Spectrum
    A graph of data produced from a mass spectrometer indicating the abundance of each particle and the mass-to-charge ratio.
  102. Mobile phase
    The phase that moves over the stationary phase in chromatography.
  103. Neclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    A technique used to analyse materials using the interaction of the nucleus of particular atoms, usually 1H or 13C, with an external magnetic field.
  104. Nucleotides
    The monomers of DNA, consisting of a phosphate group, deoxyribose sugar and a base (adenine, cytosine, guanine or thymine) bonded together
  105. Peptide Linkage
    The CONH functional group between amino acid units in polypeptides and proteins. Also called an amide group.
  106. Qualitative
    An analysis to determine the identity of the chemicals present in a substance.
  107. Quantitative
    A determination of how much of each chemical present ina substance.
  108. Salicylic acid
    A chemical used to make acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin).
  109. Sold Stationary Phase
    An adsorbent solid such as alumina or activated charcoal which is used as the stationary phase in chromatography. The components of a mixture undergo adsorption to this solid as they are carried along by the mobile phase.
  110. Standard Lab Conditions (SLC)
    Conditions at which gas pressure is 1.0 atm (101.3 kPa), the concentrations of dissolved species are 1.0 M and the temperature is 25°C.
  111. Standard Temp and Pressure
    0°C and 1 atm pressure.
  112. Stationary Phase
    A solid, or a solid that is coated in a viscous liquid, used in chromatography. The components of a mixture undergo adsorption to this phase as they are carried along by the mobile phase.
  113. Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC)
    Chromatography using as the stationary phase a thin layer of fine powder spread on a glass or plastic plate.
  114. Thymine
    A base found in nucleic acids such as DNA. It is the complementary base of adenine
  115. Titration
    A process used to determine the concentration of a reagent in which one solution is added from a burette to a known volume or mass of another substance
  116. UV-Visible Spectroscopy
    An analytical technique involving measurement of the UV–visible light absorbed by a substance
  117. Zwitterion
    A dipolar ion formed when the proton on the carboxy group of an amino acid molecule is transferred to the amino functional group, as in +H3NCH2COO–.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview