Card Set Information
Definition of Happiness
Not an emotion in the usual sense
An intense pleasant emotional experience in response to a particular event - a surprising gain or success of some sort.
What do people
when they are happy?
-act more optimistically
-approach other people more boldly than usual
-take more chances
-react less strongly than usual to threats
Duchenne smile = "REAL" positive emotion
--- Raised cheeks & crow's feet + smiling mouth
Positive Affect Scale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)
-has 20 items, each is a single word
---participant says, on scale of 1-5, how well that word describes his/her feelings during a certain time
"TOP DOWN" vs. "BOTTOM UP"
: Your personality or disposition controls your happiness
: Life events control your happiness
When people gain wealth do they become happier?
Right after people have won a lottery, they rate their happiness very high.
A few months later, their happiness ratings decline to about same as ave.
***Not sufficient evidence
Wealth does not guarantee happiness, but poverty generally leads to unhappiness.
High levels contribute to extraversion and happiness
The emotional influence of whether an outcome was better or worse than some other likely outcome
Pleasure from expecting a reward
High agency in a challenging situation combined with active generation of plans that can facilitate the desired outcome
Generally defined as an expectation that mostly good things will happen
Life Orientation Test
A test often used to measure optimism
A tendency to experience fear, sadness, and anger relatively easy.
Types of laughs:
Transition from thinking about some target from one perspective to thinking about it from a completely different, but still appropriate, perspective
Feelings that enrich life, such as happiness, love, amusement, hope, compassion, pride, gratitude and awe.
Muscle that pulls mouth up in a smile
Muscle that crinkles your eye in a smile
O + Z
less than or equal to 4 sec
difficult to fake
too fast or slow
~~~Brinkman et. al. (1978)
Is Happiness relative? Study
: 29 paraplegics & quadriplegics
22 major lottery winners
: S-R happiness
: Decreased pleasure for lottery winners
: some decrease
: Accident victims was higher
--may take weeks or months to fully adapt
--study looks @ long term happiness
May increase happiness shortly after winning
~~Minnesota Twin Study~~
Fraternal (50% genes) vs. Identical (100%) genes
Raisd together vs. raised apart
How happy/content are you, on ave, compared to others?
Identical twins showed relationships in happiness when reared together or separately
Fraternal twins showed very little, if no, relationship in happiness in either living situation
Overall Level of Happiness
10% life events
40% stuff you might be able to change
Laughter Study 1:
Voiced vs. Unvoiced
: affect of laughter on listener & attributions
: Voiced > Unvoiced
Laughter may be nonconscious strategy designed to influence other people
Laughter Study 2:
Is your laughter diff. in diff. contexts?
: 3 social situations
2. Friend v. stranger
3. Same v. opposite sex
: Subject's laughter types
: M & F produce song-like laughter w/friends
Male laughs are longer & more frequent w/friends
F diff. laugh quality w/Males