Process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms.
Enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides.
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources.
Term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms.
Human Genome Project
An on going effort to analyze the human DNA sequence.
small circular piece of DNA
Analysis of sections of DNA that have little or no known function, but vary widely from on individual to another, in order to identify individuals.
single DNA base pairs; they match with end of the same kind
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria
How does gel electrophoresis separate pieces of DNA? Mention size, speed and charge.
Construct a diagram that demonstrates how DNA fragments would be used to match a criminal scene DNA? To match a father to his baby?
What was the first genetically engineered protein?
Construct a diagram of genetic engineering.
What is the difference between the DNA of a prokaryote cell and the DNA of a eukaryote cell?
Prokaryote cell doesn't have a nucleus and the eukaryote does.
In DNA, what is complementary base pairing? What are the rules? How is this important in DNA replication?
Complementary base pairing is a principle that bonds in DNA that can form only between Adenine(A) and Thymine (T) and between Guanine(G) and Cytosine(C). It's important in replication because this ensures faithful DNA replication.
What is DNA replication? Draw a diagram of this process.
The DNA molecules separates into two strands, and then produces two new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing. Each strand of the double helix of DNA serves as a template, or model for the new strand.
What are the 4 nitrogen bases in DNA? In RNA?
DNA:Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
RNA:Adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil
Construct a labeled diagram of mRNA being formed from DNA during transcription.
Construct a labeled diagram of tRNA connecting to mRNA and amino acids linking to form proteins during the processes of translation and protein synthesis at the ribosome.
What is the function of a ribosome?
Makes protein; sites of protein synthesis
How do plant (or animal) breeders create hybrids?
By crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms.
What is inbreeding?
Inbreeding is the continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics.
Why is inbreeding used?
To ensure the characteristics that make each breed unique will be preserved.
Provide an example of inbreeding?
change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms
Adaptation(give an example)
Inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival.
ex: a porcupine's sharp quills; hunting in groups; a plant performs photosynthesis
vestigial organs(and give an example)
organ that serves no useful function in an organism
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
homologous structures (and give an example)
structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues
ex: forelimbs of humans and dolphin fins
pressure of competition to survive and have surviving offspring
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
Darwin (Don't forget to read book)
His theory of evolution by natural selection.
Adaptive radiation (speciation)
process by which a single species or small group of species evolves into several different forms that live in different ways; rapid growth in the diversity of a group of organisms
combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population
how common an allele is in a population
form of reproductive isolation in which two populations are separated physically by geographic barriers such as rivers, mountains, or stretches of water
form of reproductive isolation in which two populations reproduce at different times
form of reproductive isolation in which two population have differences in courtship rituals or other types of behaviour that prevent them from reproducing
How does natural selection work? Give an example of "survival of the fittest".
Natural selection is a process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest.
What factors would cause the allele frequency to remain the same?
1. no random mating
2. population must be large
3. no movement in or out of population
4. no mutations
5. no natural selection
In the fossil record where would you find the oldest, most primitive fossils?
At the bottom
What additional information about evolution can be gained from the fossil record?
You can infer about the past:
-life forms were like;
-food they ate
-what ate them
-environment they lived in
How does the amino acid sequence of two animals tell you how closely they are related?
Same amino acids- related
Different amino acids- unrelated
What major problem did animals face as they moved onto land? What changes did that bring about in reproduction?
Animals (water creatures) faced water conservation, structural support, and breathing on land. In reproduction, fish eggs are soft and cannot survive land surface.
How do you get genetic variations?
There are two main sources of genetic variations: mutations and the gene shuffling that results from sexual reproduction.
What 4 types of evidence do we have of a common ancestor?
1. fossil record of change in earlier species
2.chemical and anatomical similarities of related life forms
3. the geographic distribution of related species
4. the recorded genetic changes in living organisms over many generations
Is a virus a living organism? Why?
No, because a virus does not have all the characteristics of living things.
What is the difference between lytic and lysogenic viral cycles?
Lytic-breaks open, quick to cure
Lysogenic- it can become lytic, long term
preparation of weakened or killed pathogens
protein that helps destroy pathogens
substance that triggers an immune response
provide immunity against antigens and pathogens in the body fluid
provide a defense against abnormal cells and pathogens inside living cells
fights infection through the production of cells that inactivate foreign substances or cells
physical barriers such as the skin and chemical barriers like mucus, saliva, and tears
List the ways AIDS can be transmitted?
-contact with blood
-mother to child during pregnancy, birth or breast-feeding
What does an antibiotic do?
kill bacteria without harming the cells of the human or animal hosts
How can you tell the effectiveness of an antibiotic?
when symptooms go away
Are most bacteria harmful?
How can they be helpful?
Bacteria helps human digestion
What different roles can bacteria occupy in the environment?
Bacteria can make diseases in the environment.
How do humans use bacteria?
Humans use bacteria to make medicines.
What does a bacterial colony represent?
What is the germ theory of disease?
The idea that infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, or germs.
Under extreme conditions what organisms beside plants can be at the bottom of the food chain?
Why is there no vaccine for the common cold?
It's because it's a virus.
How do you get immunity to a disease? Mention primary and secondary response.
When you recover from a disease you get imme to it because you body has produced antibodies to fight the disease and it will remain in your blood for immunity.
Name 3 ways pathogens are transmitted from host to host.
1. Physical contact
2. Contaminated Food and Water
3. Infected Animals
How does an increase in body temperature (fever) help when a person is infected with a pathogen?
Increase in body temperature helps fight the pathogens. The pathogens can be killed by high temperatures.
Name main functions of the respiratory system.
Produces reproductive cells; in females, nurtures and protects developing embryo
What is the diaphragm and what things does it do?
The diaphragm is a large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing. The diaphragm helps us inhale and exhale.
Where is the trachea located and what is its function?
Trachea (windpipe) is located in the neck. The trachea lets air pass through.
What tells the body to breathe deeper?
what is the function of insulin and where is it produced?
Function of insulin is to lower blood glucose level. It is produced in the pancreas.
What is the main funciton of the digestive system?
Converts food into simpler molecules that can be used by the cells of the body; absorbs food, eliminates wastes.
Function of Saliva
makes food easier to chew and begins process of chemical digestion
Function of esophagus
moves food to stomach by contractions of smooth muscle
Function of stomach
continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food
Function of small intestine
where most of the chemical digestion and absorption of food occurs
Function of villi
increase surface area of the intestine to increase its capacity to absorb nutrients and liquid from food passing through it
Function of large intestine
remove water from the undigested material that is left
Function of gall bladder
Function of liver
Function of pancreas
produce hormone to regulate blood sugar levels, it produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
What does the kidney do? What does this help maintain?
The kidney removes waste products from the body by filtering them from the blood. It maintains the PH balance throughout the body.
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney.
What is kidney dialysis?
An artificial way getting rid of waste by using machines.
What are the main functions of the circulatory system?
Brings oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cell; fights infection, removes cell wastes, helps regulate body temperature.
What happens at the capillaries?
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
What do red blood cells do?
Red blood cells transport oxygen.
Function of Pulmonary artery
transports deoxygenated blood from the heart to the left and right lungs
Function of the Pulmonary veins
transports oxygenated blood from the left and right lungs to the heart
Function of the aorta
first series of blood bessels that carry the blood on its round trip through the body and back to the heart
Function of the Inferior and Superior vena cava
Superior vena cava- carry blood from upper body to the heart
Inferior vena cava- carry blood from lower body to the heart
What are the main differences between an artery and a vein?
An artery carries blood away from the heart and a vein carries blood towards the heart.
What is the function of the valves in the heart?
The valves in the heart prevents backflow of blood.
What is the function of the valves in veins?
The function of the valves in the veins is to prevent backflow after each heartbeat. This ensures one direction.
List the main functions of the skeletal system.
-supports the body
-protects internal organs
-stores mineral reserves
-provides a site for blood cell formation
Know the 3 types of muscle tissue and their properties.
Skeletal: found in bones; voluntary movements such as dancing; striated, have many nuclei
Smooth: found in the stomach, blood vessels and intestines; not voluntary control; move food through digestive tract; controls blood flow through circulatory system; decrease size of pupil; has one nucleus
Cardiac: found in the heart; striated; 1 nucleus but may have 2; not under direct control of central nervous system
What happens to the actin and myosin fibers when a muscle contracts? What effect does this have on the entire muscle?
During muscle contraction, the actin filaments slide over myosin filaments, decreasing the distance between the z lines.
What are themain functions of the integumentary system?
Serves as a barrier against infection and injury; helps to regulate body temperature; provides protection against ultraviolet radiation from the sun
smallest blood vessel; brings nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorbs carbon dioxide and waste products, exhange oxygen and carbon dioxide
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
blood-filtering unit in the renal cortex of the kidney
material that remains from reabsorption
lower chamber of the heart that pumps blood out of the heart
large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing
acts like a detergent, dissolving and dispersing the droplets of fat found in fatty foods
movement of a substance from high concentration to low concentration
A hormone produced in the prancreas by the islets of Langerhams that regulate the amount of glucose in the blood.
What are the functions of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)?
The central nervous system relays messages, processes information, and analyzes information.
How does the brain maintain homeostasis?
A part of the brain called the hypothalamus contains nerve cells that monitor both th temperature of the skin at the surface at the body and the temperature of organs in the body's core.
During excercise, a person will most likely breath at a rapid rate and breathe very deeply. What factor controls the rate of respiration and the depth of breathing?
levels in the blood of carbon dioxide
What is the main function of the endocrine system?
controls growth, development, and metabolism; maintains homeostasis
What are hormones?
Substance produced in one part of an organism that affects another part of the same organism.
What gland produces insulin and what is the function of insulin.
The pancreas produces insulin. Insulin lowers blood glucose level.
What cells transmit electrical signals throught the nervous system to organs?
List the ways water is lost from the body.
sweat, urination, breathing out, spitting
What are the four basic types of tissue in the human body?
Epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue