The Foot and Ankle

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Author:
sferguson11
ID:
8908
Filename:
The Foot and Ankle
Updated:
2010-03-02 22:17:29
Tags:
foot ankle
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Description:
Includes information about the foot and ankle
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  1. Tarsals
    • Talus
    • Navicular
    • Cuneiforms (3)
    • Cuboid
    • Calcaneus
  2. Talus
    Articulates with the tibia
  3. Navicular
    Articulates with the talus
  4. Cuneiforms
    • Medial cuneiform - articulates with 1st & 2nd metatarsals
    • Intermediate cuneiform - articulates with 2nd metatarsal
    • Lateral cuneiform - articulates 3rd metatarsal
  5. Cuboid
    Articulates with 4th and 5th metatarsals
  6. Calcaneus
    "Heel bone"; articulates with the talus
  7. Anatomy of the foot
    • 7 tarsals
    • 5 metatarsals
    • 14 phalanges
  8. Talocrural joint
    • The "ankle joint"
    • Hinge joint
    • The articulation between the tibia and the talus
    • Movements: ankle dorsiflexion and ankle plantarflexion
  9. Subtalar joint
    • Commonly mistaken for the "ankle joint" but is NOT the "ankle joint"
    • The articulation between the calcaneus and the talus
    • Movements: inversion and eversion of the foot; pronation and supination
  10. Tarsal-metatarsal joint
    • The articulation between the tarsals (medial cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, lateral cuneiform, and cuboid) and the bases of the metatarsals
    • The first metatarsal articulates with the medial cuneiform
    • The second metatarsal articulates with the intermediate cuneiform
    • The third metatarsal articulates with the lateral cuneiform
    • The fourth metatarsal articulates with the cuboid
    • The fifth metatarsal articulates with the cuboid
  11. Transverse tarsal joint
    The articulation between calcaneus and the cuboid and the navicular and the talus
  12. Metatarsal-phalangeal joint
    The articulation between the metatarsals and the phalanges; think: the "knuckles of the foot"
  13. Interphalangeal joint
    • The articulation between the phalanges
    • The great toe (hallux) has an interphalangeal joint only
    • All other toes have distal interphalangeal joints and proximal interphalangeal joints
  14. Intertarsal joint
    The articulation between tarsals
  15. Anterior Talofibular Ligament
    Origin: Talus

    Insertion: Lateral malleolus of the fibula

    Action: Prevents inversion in ankle plantarflexion

    *This ligament is damaged in a sprained ankle*
  16. Calcaneofibular Ligament
    Origin: Calcaneus

    Insertion: Lateral malleolus of the fibula

    Action: Prevents inversion in neutral position

    *SEVERE inversion during a sprain can also injure this ligament*
  17. Posterior Talofibular Ligament
    Origin: Posterior talus

    Insertion: Posterior lateral malleolus

    Action: Prevents inversion in an ankle dorsiflexed position

    *If you REALLY hurt your ankle, it's possible to damage all 3 lateral ligaments*
  18. Deltoid Ligament
    • Anterior - tibionavicular
    • Intermediate - tibiocalcaneal
    • Posterior - tibiotalar

    • *Triangular in shape*
    • *Injured through eversion*
  19. Anterior Tibiofibular Ligament
    Syndesmosis
  20. Posterior Tibiofibular Ligament
    Syndesmosis
  21. Why isn't the ankle injured through eversion as much as it is through inversion?
    Because the fibular comes down farther on the lateral aspect which offers stability
  22. What are the medical terms for flat arches and high arches?
    • Flat foot = Pes planus
    • High arches = Pes cavus
  23. Medial Longitudinal Arch
    • Formed by the calcaneus, talus, 3 cuneiforms, navicular, and 3 medial metatarsals
    • Supported by the spring ligament (calcaneal navicular ligament)
  24. Lateral Longitudinal Arch
    • Formed by the calcaneus, cuboid, and 4-5 metatarsals (lateral metatarsals)
    • Runs along lateral aspect of the foot
    • Flatter than the MLA
  25. Transverse Arch
    • Formed by the cuboid, cuneiforms, and base of 1-5 metatarsals
    • Supported by the peroneus longus tendon
  26. Plantar Fascia
    • *Deep, dense connective tissue covering the plantar aspect of the foot and supports the tendons*
    • *Superficial and strong*

    Origin: Calcaneal tubercle

    Insertion: Base of 1st - 5th metatarsals

    *Women who where high heels are prone to getting plantar fasciitis*

    Action: Supports tendons
  27. How many muscular layers are in the foot?
    4
  28. Superficial Layer
    AB-ductor Hallucis - AB-ducts the great toe

    Flexor Digitorum Brevis - Flexes digits 2-5 at the proximal interphalangeal joint ("brevis" - doesn't reach all the way to distal phalanx)

    AB-ductor Digiti Minimi - AB-ducts the little toe

    *The great toe and little toe are able to move independently, but digits 2-4 move together*
  29. 2nd Layer
    Quadratus Plantae - Flexes digits 2-5

    Lumbricals - Flexes metatarsal phalangeal joints and extends the distal and proximal interphalangeal joints of digits 2-5
  30. 3rd Layer
    Flexor Hallucis Brevis - Flexes great toe at the metatarsal phalangeal joint

    Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis - Flexes little toe at the metatarsal phalangeal joint

    AD-ductor Hallucis - AD-ducts the great toe (runs transverse and pulls towards the midline)
  31. 4th Layer
    Plantar Interosseus - AD-ducts digits 2-4 (PAD)

    Dorsal Interosseus - AB-ducts digits 2-4 (DAB)
  32. What is Morton's Toe?
    When the 2nd metatarsal is longer than the 1st, thus making the 2nd toe appear longer than the great toe
  33. After a lateral ankle sprain, what muscles should be strengthened?
    The peroneus longus and peroneus brevis
  34. What tendon does the sesamoid bones of the great toe lie in?
    The tendon of the flexor hallucis brevis
  35. What is the extensor retinacula?
    Dense collection of fibrous tissue; helps muscles stay running in the same place
  36. What are the medical terms for bowleg and knock-knee?
    • Bowleg - Genu varum
    • Knock-knee - Genu valgum
  37. Bones and joints of the foot

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