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- Cuneiforms (3)
Articulates with the tibia
Articulates with the talus
- Medial cuneiform - articulates with 1st & 2nd metatarsals
- Intermediate cuneiform - articulates with 2nd metatarsal
- Lateral cuneiform - articulates 3rd metatarsal
Articulates with 4th and 5th metatarsals
"Heel bone"; articulates with the talus
Anatomy of the foot
- 7 tarsals
- 5 metatarsals
- 14 phalanges
- The "ankle joint"
- Hinge joint
- The articulation between the tibia and the talus
- Movements: ankle dorsiflexion and ankle plantarflexion
- Commonly mistaken for the "ankle joint" but is NOT the "ankle joint"
- The articulation between the calcaneus and the talus
- Movements: inversion and eversion of the foot; pronation and supination
- The articulation between the tarsals (medial cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, lateral cuneiform, and cuboid) and the bases of the metatarsals
- The first metatarsal articulates with the medial cuneiform
- The second metatarsal articulates with the intermediate cuneiform
- The third metatarsal articulates with the lateral cuneiform
- The fourth metatarsal articulates with the cuboid
- The fifth metatarsal articulates with the cuboid
Transverse tarsal joint
The articulation between calcaneus and the cuboid and the navicular and the talus
The articulation between the metatarsals and the phalanges; think: the "knuckles of the foot"
- The articulation between the phalanges
- The great toe (hallux) has an interphalangeal joint only
- All other toes have distal interphalangeal joints and proximal interphalangeal joints
The articulation between tarsals
Anterior Talofibular Ligament
Insertion: Lateral malleolus of the fibula
Action: Prevents inversion in ankle plantarflexion
*This ligament is damaged in a sprained ankle*
Insertion: Lateral malleolus of the fibula
Action: Prevents inversion in neutral position
*SEVERE inversion during a sprain can also injure this ligament*
Posterior Talofibular Ligament
Origin: Posterior talus
Insertion: Posterior lateral malleolus
Action: Prevents inversion in an ankle dorsiflexed position
*If you REALLY hurt your ankle, it's possible to damage all 3 lateral ligaments*
- Anterior - tibionavicular
- Intermediate - tibiocalcaneal
- Posterior - tibiotalar
- *Triangular in shape*
- *Injured through eversion*
Anterior Tibiofibular Ligament
Posterior Tibiofibular Ligament
Why isn't the ankle injured through eversion as much as it is through inversion?
Because the fibular comes down farther on the lateral aspect which offers stability
What are the medical terms for flat arches and high arches?
- Flat foot = Pes planus
- High arches = Pes cavus
Medial Longitudinal Arch
- Formed by the calcaneus, talus, 3 cuneiforms, navicular, and 3 medial metatarsals
- Supported by the spring ligament (calcaneal navicular ligament)
Lateral Longitudinal Arch
- Formed by the calcaneus, cuboid, and 4-5 metatarsals (lateral metatarsals)
- Runs along lateral aspect of the foot
- Flatter than the MLA
- Formed by the cuboid, cuneiforms, and base of 1-5 metatarsals
- Supported by the peroneus longus tendon
- *Deep, dense connective tissue covering the plantar aspect of the foot and supports the tendons*
- *Superficial and strong*
: Calcaneal tubercle
: Base of 1st - 5th metatarsals
*Women who where high heels are prone to getting plantar fasciitis
: Supports tendons
How many muscular layers are in the foot?
AB-ductor Hallucis - AB-ducts the great toe
Flexor Digitorum Brevis - Flexes digits 2-5 at the proximal interphalangeal joint ("brevis" - doesn't reach all the way to distal phalanx)
AB-ductor Digiti Minimi - AB-ducts the little toe
*The great toe and little toe are able to move independently, but digits 2-4 move together*
Quadratus Plantae - Flexes digits 2-5
Lumbricals - Flexes metatarsal phalangeal joints and extends the distal and proximal interphalangeal joints of digits 2-5
Flexor Hallucis Brevis - Flexes great toe at the metatarsal phalangeal joint
Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis - Flexes little toe at the metatarsal phalangeal joint
AD-ductor Hallucis - AD-ducts the great toe (runs transverse and pulls towards the midline)
Plantar Interosseus - AD-ducts digits 2-4 (PAD)
Dorsal Interosseus - AB-ducts digits 2-4 (DAB)
What is Morton's Toe?
When the 2nd metatarsal is longer than the 1st, thus making the 2nd toe appear longer than the great toe
After a lateral ankle sprain, what muscles should be strengthened?
The peroneus longus and peroneus brevis
What tendon does the sesamoid bones of the great toe lie in?
The tendon of the flexor hallucis brevis
What is the extensor retinacula?
Dense collection of fibrous tissue; helps muscles stay running in the same place
What are the medical terms for bowleg and knock-knee?
- Bowleg - Genu varum
- Knock-knee - Genu valgum
Bones and joints of the foot