Beer & Spirits.txt

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Beer & Spirits.txt
2012-11-26 07:19:10
Certified Sommelier

French Culinary Institute
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  1. ´╗┐State the ingredients allowed in the Bavarian Purity Law of 1516 (Rheinhetsgebot)
    • Water
    • Barley malt (germinated barley)
    • Yeast
    • Hops (Humulus lupulus)
  2. What is fermentation?
    • Sugar + yeast = Alcohol + CO2
    • For wine, the grape juice has sugar and water
    • For beer, must germinate the barley to get sugar and add water
  3. Name the 2 main categories of beer
    • Ales: top-fermenting yeasts, warm with fast fermentation
    • Lagers: bottom-fermenting yeasts with cool, slow fermentation
    • Steam Beer: bottom-fermenting yeast with warm, fast fermentation
  4. Name 2 styles of beer within each of the 2 main beer categories
    • Ales: Pale Ale (IPA), Bitters (ESB), Porters, Stouts, Wheat or Weisse
    • Lagers: Pilsner, Bock (strong), Marzen ("Mayrt-zen")
  5. State the steps of beer production
    • 1 (HARVEST): Harvest barley
    • 2 (GERMINATION): Malt is made by steeping barley in water for 48-72 hours, until it begins to germinate. Sprouting produces the enzyme amylase which converts starch into maltose and dextrin.
    • 3 (KILN): The "green malt" is dryed by hot air in a kiln to stop germination and then possibly toasted
    • 4 (GRIND): The malt is then "cracked" in a mill, producing grist
    • 5 (STEEP): "Steep in warm water to extract sugar, creating wort."
    • The grist is combined with hot water in a mash tun, creating wort. Additional sugar and flavor extracted via sparging (rinsing the spent grains with water) is added to the wort liquid. Hops are added and the wort is boiled for an hour to stablize and sterilize the brew.
    • 6 (YEAST): add ("pitch") cultured yeast after wort is cooled. Saccharomyces cerevisae is added for ales; Saccharomyces carlsbergensis is added for lagers.
    • 8 (FILTER): Filter, pasteurize and condition
    • Note: Home brewers often buy extract (dry or syrup) so they just add water to create wort
  6. Name some unpasteurized beer styles
    • Lambic: wild yeast, very sour, improves with age
    • Trappiste Ale: unfiltered, made by monks
    • Cask/Bottle Conditioned: unfiltered
  7. What temperature should beer be served at?
    • Lagers: 48-52 degrees F
    • Light ales: 54-57 degrees F
    • Dark ales: room temperature
  8. State the steps of sake production
    • 1 (STEAM): Rice is washed and steam cooked
    • 2 (YEAST/KOJI): Rice is mixed with yeast and koji
    • 3 (FERMENATION): ferment in large tank (Shikomi); more rice, koji, water added in 3 batches
    • 4 (FILTER): Sit 18-32 days then press, filter (often though cloth bags), and blend
  9. Name some sake terms
    • Nigori: milky, unfiltered sake, usually sweet
    • Shizuki: free run
    • Kimoto: tart sake
    • Taruzake: aged in cypress casks (smells of cracked black pepper)
    • Genshu: undiluted
  10. Name the sweetness scale for sake
    • Nihonshu-do: Sake Meter Value (SMV)
    • -5 to +10: sweeter to drier
  11. State the production difference between a blond ale, amber and porter
    • Light malt and cyrstal malts are used for light ales, bitters and lagers
    • Chocolate and black malt is used for mild ales and stouts
  12. Define hops
    The flower cone of a harbaceous climbing plant used in the production of beer to impart bitterness and flavor, and as a preservative.
  13. Name the premium sake quality levels
    • Name: min % rice polished away / no added alc / brewers alcohol added
    • Honjozo: distilled alcohol added
    • Junmai: 30% / Junmai-shu / Honjozo-shu
    • Gingo: 40% / Junmai Gingo / Ginjo-shu Honjozo
    • Daiginjo: 50% / Junmai Daigingo / Daiginjo-shu Honjozo
    • Namazake: unpasteurized; all of the above styles can be Namazake.
  14. State the Japanese term for the Sake fermentation starter mold
    Koji: aspergillus oryzae
  15. Define Alembic
    • Copper Pot Still
    • Slower and gentler than continuous still
    • Invented by Arabs for perfume
    • aka Coffey Still and Patent Still
    • Cognac uses Charentais stills
  16. When is a continuous still used
    • Lighter, cleaner spirits that rarely undergo wood aging
    • Vodka, gin, light rum, light tequila, aquavit
    • Relatively short distillation
    • aka Rectifying Still
  17. Name the 4 main Scotch regions
    • Highland including Speyside, Perthshire, Northern, and Islands
    • Islay
    • Cambeltown
    • Lowland
  18. Define peat
    • Partially carbonized vegetal matter (plants on their way to becoming rock)
    • Not peat moss
  19. Define Bourbon
    • Originally made in Kentucky, min 51% corn but most 70%; pot stilled and aged 2 years in charred white American oak
    • Tennessee Whiskey is Bourbon that is filtered through sugar maple charcoal ("Lincoln County Method")
  20. Name the best Cognac, Armagnac & Calvados sub-regions
    • Cognac: Grand Champagne (best, chalky soil), Petite Champagne, (Fine Champagne is Petite + > 50% Grand), Borderies, Fins Bois, Bons Bois, Bois Ordinaires
    • Armagnac: Bas Armagnac (best, sandy soil), Haut Armagnac, Tenareze
    • Calvados: Pays d'Auge (best, double pot still, 1 year oak), Domfrontais (continuous still, min 30% pears), Calvados (continuous still)
  21. State the main grapes of Cognac and Armagnac
    Ugni Blanc (St-Emilion), Colombard, Folle Blanche (Picpoul)
  22. Does Cognac improve with age in the bottle?
  23. State the aging terms for Cognac
    • Min aging in new French Oak casks
    • VS: Very Special (Superior), min 2 years; aka Three Star
    • VSOP: Very Special Old Pale, 4 years; aka VO, Reserve, Five Star
    • XO: Extra Old, 6 years; aka Antique, Cordon Bleu, Centeur
    • Examples: Hine XO, Frapin VIP XO, Louis XIII de Remy Martin
  24. State the aging terms for Armagnac
    • Min aging in new French Oak casks
    • Three Star: min 2 years
    • VSOP: Very Special Old Pale, 5 years; aka VO
    • XO: Extra Old, 6 years; aka Vieille Relique, Tres Vieille Reserve, Napoleon
    • Hor d'age: 10 years
  25. What are the simplified aging terms for Armagnac to be phased in through 2013?
    • The Bureau National Interprofessionel de l'Armagnac (BNIA) has recommended:
    • Three Star: youngest is min 1 year
    • VSOP: min 4 years
    • Hors d'Age: youngest is min 10 years
    • Example: Duc de Loussac XO
  26. State the aging terms for Calvados
    • Age is youngest in blend
    • Three Star: min 2 years (aka Fine, Trois Pommes)
    • Vieux: min 3 years (aka Reserve)
    • VSOP: min 4 years (Vieille Reserve)
    • XO: min 6 years (aka Extra, Napoleon)
    • Examples: Christian Drouin "Coeur de Lion"
  27. Who spells whisky with an e?
    • Whiskey: Ireland, U.S.A.
    • Whisky: Scotland, Canada, Japan, New Zealand
  28. Describe how Single Malt Whisky is made
    • Double distilled in copper pot stills and flavored with peat
    • Keep heart (bonne chauffe) and throw out heads (tete) and tails (queue)
    • Age in used oak barrels (old Bourbon, Sherry, Port, Madeira barrels)
    • Age indicates the average age
  29. Describe how Irish Whiskey is made
    • Irish Whiskey: Triple distilled, not flavored with peat
    • Scotch and Cognac: Double distilled
  30. Name 3 classic cocktails & their base spirit
    • Old-Fashioned: shiskey, angostura, sugar cube, soda water
    • Manhattan: whiskey, angostura, sweet red vermouth, Marashino cherry
    • The Sazerac: rye whiskey or brandy, angostura and peychaud, absinthe, simple syrup
    • Martini: gin, dry vermouth
    • The Monkey Gland: gin, orange juice, absinthe, grenadine
    • Bacardi Cocktail: light rum, lime juice, grenadine
    • Sidecar: cognac or armagnac, cointreau, lemon juice
    • Cape Cod: vodka, cranberry juice
    • Cosmopolitan: vodka, cranberry juice, triple sec, lime juice
    • Gimlet: gin, lime juice
    • Tequila Sunrise: tequila, orange juce, grenadine; alternative: creme de cassis, lime juice, soda water
    • Mojito: light rum, sugar, lime, sparkling water, mint
    • Caipirinha: cachaca (Brazil), sugar, lime
  31. State the main flavoring ingredient of Gin
    • Juniper
    • Flavored vodka, first produced iun Scotland lowlands
    • Styles: London Dry, Dutch Genever
  32. State the source of sugar for the best Tequila
  33. State the source of sugar for rum
    Sugar Cane
  34. State the minimum sugar level for liqueur
    2.5% sugar by volume
  35. Name 3 liqueurs, their base & country of origin
    • Amaretto: Italy, Apricot/Almond
    • Frangelica: Italy, Hazelnut
    • Heering: Denmark, Cherry
  36. Name any beverage suitable as an aperitif & why
    • light, crisp, and sour makes you hungry
    • Vermouth, Campari, Dubonnet, Lillet (lee-LAY), Aperol, Cynar (CHEE-nar)
    • Also Sherry, Sparkling wines, Pimm's, Pernod, Pastis
  37. Name any beverage suitable as an digestive & why
    • oils from bark, seeds, etc. that aid digestion
    • Barolo Chinato
    • Grasshopper: Creme de menthe, creme de cacao, heavy cream
    • Irish Coffee: Whisky, COffee, Sugar, heavy cream
    • Brandy Alexander: Brandy, Cacao cream, heavy cream, nutmeg
  38. Name a brandy other than Cognac, Armagnac & Calvados
    • Marc: distilled fermented "wine leftovers" (grape pips and skins)
    • Grappa: Italian Marc
    • Asbach: produced in Germany from French wine
  39. Describe Grappa
    • The best is made from a single grape variety and held in glass.
    • Invecchiata: aged in oak
    • Stravecchia: extra maturation in oak
  40. What are cider and perry?
    • Cider: fermented apple juice, up to 25% pear juice OK
    • Perry: fermented pear juice, up to 25% apple juice OK
  41. Name some fruit spirits (Eau de Vie) other than brandy
    • Calvados: distilled fermented apple cider, aged in oak
    • Pommeau: 2/3 apple juice, 1/3 Calvados, aged in oak
    • Framboise: distilled fermented raspberries
    • Kirsch: distilled fermented cherries
    • Poire William: distilled fermented pears
    • Mirabelle: distilled fermented mirabelles (yellow plums)
    • Slivovitz (Rakia): distilled fermented plums
    • Quetsch: distilled fermented red plums
  42. Name some common syrups and their flavor and color
    • Cassis: Blackcurrant, purple
    • Citron: Lemon, yellow
    • Framboise: Raspberry, red
    • Grenadine: Pomegranate, red
    • Gomme: Sugar, colorless
    • Orgeat: Almond, colorless
  43. Name the 4 conventional spirit categories
    • White/Beer: Gin, Vodka, Light Rum, Light Tequila
    • White/Wine: Eaux-de-Vie, Grappa, Marc
    • Brown/Beer: Whisky, dark Rum, dark Tequila
    • Brown/Wine: Brandy, Calvados
    • Note: currently, whites outsell browns
  44. Name aniseed-based spirits
    • Pernod
    • Pastis
    • Ricard
    • Ouzo
    • Absinthe
    • Added water makes them turn cloudy/milky
  45. What are bitters and name some
    • Spirits infused with spices, herbs, roots, fruit, or botanicals (aromatic herbal liqueurs).
    • Served as apertifs, digestifs, cocktail ingredient
    • Angosura (Trinidad, red-brown)
    • Amer Picon (France, red, orange, gentian)
    • Suze (France, gentian)
    • Campari (Italy, red, quinine, rhubarb, orange)
    • Fernet Branca (Italy, brown)
    • Underberg (Germany)
    • Cynar (Italy, artichoke)
    • Unicum (Zwack) (Hungary)
    • Jagermeister (Germany)
  46. What are liqueurs and name some
    • Sweetened flavored spirits
    • Flavor extracted by infusion, percolation, or distillation
    • Amaretto: Italy, apricot, almond
    • Frangelico: Italy, Hazelnut
    • Limoncello: Italy, lemon
    • Benedictine: France, DOM = Deo Optimo Maximo
    • Chartreuse: France, green=55%, yellow=40%, VEP=Viellissement Exceptionnellement Prolonge
    • Creme de Cassis: France, blackcurrant
    • Pisang Ambon: Holland, banana
    • Advocaat: Holland, egg
    • Cherry Heering:Denmark, cherry
    • Midori: Japan, melon
    • Tamara: Israel, dates
    • Malibu: Barbados, coconut
    • Sloe Gin: England, sloe berries
  47. Name some liquers and their base
    • Citris: Contreau, Curacao, Triple Sec, Grand Marnier, Van der Hume
    • Chocolate: Creme de cacao, Royal Mint
    • Coffee: Kahlua, Tia Maria
    • Cream: Baileys Original, Devonshire Royal, Sheridans, Amarula (South Africa, Elephant tree)
    • Herb, fruit and nut: Creme de menthe, Frangelico, Galliano, Kummel, Malibu, Midori, Sambuca, Strega
    • Whisky: Southern Comfort, Drambuie, Glayva, Glen Mist, Irish Mist (not to be confused with liqueur whiskies, which are old mature whiskies)
  48. What is Schnapps
    • distilled fermented grain
    • Aquavit (caraway flavor, yellow-brown) is national drink of Scandinavia
    • Note: Schnapps in Europe is not sweet (more like grappa)
  49. Distinguish Mescal and Tequila
    • All tequilas are mescals but not all mescals are tequilas.
    • Mescals are produced from over ten varieties of agave
    • Tequilas are only produced from Agave tequilana (maguey azul)
  50. Name the four classifications of Tequila
    • Blanco: clear and aged less than 60 days
    • Joven Abocado: unaged Blanco colored with caramel
    • Reposado: aged in wood from 60 days to 1 year
    • Anejo: aged in wood gbarrels no larger than 600 liters for at least 1 year
  51. What does Visce Beatha mean?
    • Water of Life
    • Gaelic phrase that became "Whisky"
  52. What is Vin de Liqueur (VdL)?
    • Fortified juice (not wine)
    • aka Vin de Mistelle
  53. What is Vermouth and name some
    • a fortified wine, flavored with aromatic herbs, roots and barks (e.g., wormwood, germander, cardamom, cinnamon, marjoram and chamomile). Used as an apertif in Europe and as an ingredient in cocktails and cooking in the U.S.
    • Vya (CA, Spicy)
    • Duckhorn King Eider (CA)
    • Cinzano (Italy, Sweet)
    • Noilly Prat (France, Dry)
  54. What is Kir?
    • Kir: Borgogne Aligote + Creme de Cassis
    • Kir Royale: Cremant de Borgogne + Creme de Cassis
  55. Name some Vin de Liqueurs (spirit + juice)
    • Pineau de Charentes (Cognac)
    • Floc de Gasgogne (Armagnac)
    • Ratafia (Champagne)
    • Macvin de Jura (Savagnin)
    • Pomeau de Normandie (Apple)
  56. What is Zwack?
    • National Shot of Hungary
    • Liqueur made with 40 herbs and spicesdL)
    • aka Vin de Mistelle
    • Fortified juice (not wine)
  57. Name some whisky-based cocktails
    • Godfather: Amaretto
    • Rusty Nail: Drambuie
    • Irish Coffee: Coffee, Brown Sugar, Heavy Cream
    • John Collins: Lemon, Simple Syrup, Club Soda
    • Manhattan: Rye, Sweet Vermouth, Angostura
    • Rob Roy: Scotch, Sweet Vermouth, Angostura
    • Perfect Manhattan: Manhattan + Dry Vermouth
    • Mint Julep: Bourbon, Simple Syrup, Mint
    • Old Fashioned: Bourbon, Angostura, Brown Sugar, Soda Water
    • Whiskey Sour: Bourbon, Egg White, Lemon, Simple Syrup
  58. Name some brandy-based cocktails
    • B&B: Benedictine
    • Brandy Alexander: Brown Creme de Cacao, Heavy Cream
    • Earthquake: Cognac, Absinth
    • Honeymoon: Apple brandy, Benedictine, Curacao, Lemon
    • Sidecar: Cointreau, Lemon Juice
    • Stinger: White Creme de Menthe
    • Widow's Kiss: Calvados, Yellow Charteuse, Angostura
  59. Name some vodka-based cocktails
    • Black Russian: Kahlua
    • White Russian: Kahlua, Heavy Cream
    • Godmother: Amaretto
    • Bloody Mary: Tomato, Lemon, Tabaso, Worcestershire, Horseradish, salt & pepper
    • Bull Shot: Beef Broth, Tabasco, Worcestershire, celery salt & pepper
    • Cape Cod: Cranberry
    • Kamikaze: Triple Sec, Lime
    • Cosmopolitan: Triple Sec, Lime, Cranberry
    • Moscow Mule: Lime, Ginger Beer
    • Screwdriver: Orange
    • Madras: Cranberry, Orange
    • Harvey Wallbanger: Galliano, Orange
    • Sea Breeze: Cranberry, Grapefruit
    • French Martini: Chambord, Pineapple
    • Woo Woo: Peach Schnapps, Cranberry
    • Sex on the Beach: Peach Schnapps, Cranberry, Pineapple, Cambord
  60. Name some gin-based cocktails
    • Aviation: Lemon, Marachino Liqueur
    • Abbey: Lillet, Orange, Bitters
    • Alexander: White Creme de Cacao, Heavy Cream
    • Antibes: Genedictine, Grapefruit
    • Bee's Knees: Honey, Lemon
    • Bijou: Green Charteuse, Sweet Vermouth, Orange Bitters
    • Boston Cocktail: Apricot Brandy, Lemon, Grenadine
    • The Bramble: Lemon, Simple Syrup, Blackberry Liqueur
    • Bronx: Orange, Sweet & Dry Vermouth
    • Corpse Reviver: Cointreau, Lillet Blanc, Lemon, Absinthe
    • Delmonico: Cognac, Sweet & Dry Vermouth
    • Gibson: Dry Vermouth
    • Gimlet: Plymouth Gin, Lime (sweetened)
    • Gin Fizz: Lemon, Simple Syrup, Soda Water
    • Gin-Gin Mule: Plymouth Gin, Simple Syrup, Lime, Giner Beer, Mint
    • Monkey Gland: Orange, Grenadine, Absinth
    • Napoleon: Fernet Branca, Grand Marnier, Dubonnet Blanc
    • Negroni: Campari, Sweet Vermouth
    • Pink Lady: Plymouth Gin, Grenadine, Egg White, Lemon, Simple Syrup
    • White Lady: Cointreau, Egg White, Lemon
    • Singapore Sling: Cherry Heering, Cointreau, Benedictine, Grenadine, Angostura, Soda Water, Lime, Pinepple
    • Tom Collins: Lemon, Simply Syrup, Soda Water
  61. Name some rum-based cocktails
    • Cable Car: Captain Morgan, Curacao, Lemon, Simply Syrup
    • Daiquiri: White Rum, Lime, Simple Syrup
    • Hemingway Daiquiri: Daiquiri + Grapefruit, Maraschino Liqueur
    • Hurricane: Light & Dark Rum, Lime, Orange, Passion Fruit, Pineapple, Angostura
    • Mai Tai: Light & Dark Rum, Lime, Curacao, Noiyha (or Orgeat Syrup)
    • Mojito: White Rum, Lime, Sugar, Soda Water, Mint
    • Pina Colada: White RUm, Cream of Coconut, Pineapple
    • Planter's Punch, Dark Rum, Lemon, Grenadine, Soda Water, Angostura
    • Scorpion: Light Rum, Brandy, Dry Vermouth, Orange, Lemon, Orgeat
    • Zombie: Puerto Rican/Jamaican/Demerara Rum, Grenadine, Angostura, Pernod, Lime, Grapefruit, Pineapple, Falernum Syrup
  62. Name some champagne-based cocktails
    • Bellini: Prosecco, White Peach Puree, Raspberry Puree
    • Black Velvet: Guinness
    • Buck's Fizz: Orange
    • Mimosa: Orange, Triple Sec
    • Kir Royal: Creme de Cassis
    • Champagne Cocktail: Cognac, Angostura, Sugar
  63. Name some other cocktails
    • Americano: Campari, Sweet Vermouth, Soda Water
    • Caipirinha: Cachaca, Lime, Sugar
    • Golden Cadillac: Galliano, WHite Creme de Cacao, Cream
    • Long Island Iced Tea: Vodka, Tequila, White Rum, Trip Sec, Gin, Lemon, Simple Syrup, Coca-cola
    • Margarita: Tequila, Contreau, Lime, Simple Syrup
    • Matador: Tequila, Pineapple, Lime
    • Paloma: Reposado Tequila, Lime, Grapefruit
    • Tequila Sunrise: Tequila, Orange, Grenadine
    • Pimm's Cup: Pimm's No. 1, Lime, Lemonade
    • Pisco Sour: Pisco, Lime/Lim, Simple Syrup, Egg White, Angostura
    • Sloe Gin Fizz: Sloe Gin, Lemon, Sugar, Soda Water, Egg White
  64. Match the liqueur to the most appropriate flavor.
    • Midori: Melon
    • Kummel: Caraway Seed
    • Cynar: Artichoke
    • Chambord: Raspberry
    • Strega: Saffron
    • Tia Maria: Coffee
    • Pernod: Anise
  65. On what French island in the Caribbean is AOP rhum agricole produced?
  66. Which AOP requires min 30% perry and 3 years in cask prior to release?
    Calvados Domfrontais
  67. Match the distillery to the appropriate region
    • Talisker: Isle of Skye
    • Highland Park: Isle of Orkney
    • Glenfiddich: Speyside
    • Springbank: Campbeltown
    • Auchentoshan: Lowlands
    • Oban: Highlands
    • Ardbeg: Islay
  68. Match the spirit to the most appropriate base of fermentation
    • Irish Whiskey: Unmalted Barley
    • Scotch Whisky: Malted Barley
    • Rum: Sugarcane
    • Tequila: Blue Agave
    • Bourbon: Maize
  69. What is the only natural source of quinine?
    • Bark of the Cinchona tree
    • Note: quinine is an alkaloid with medicinal properties and a bitter taste