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Study of disease
Any change from the state of health causing a disruption of homeostasis
Maintaining physiologic limits
Definition: Local disease
One part, or a limited area of the body is affected
Definition: Systemic disease
All of the body is affected
Are subjective, changes are not obvious to observer, are reported by patient. Example: Pain
Symptoms are not often seen in our field because the Patient cannot talk.
Are objective, can be read. Changes are obvious to observer, are observed by examiner or measured with equipment.
Example: fever, rash.
The art and science of distinguishing one disease from another. State of complete knowledge.
What does a diagnosis include implementing?
Medical hx, P.E, dx testing, problems list, differential dx, tx plan
Invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, can be unapparent or characterized by tissue damage.
Definition: Infectious dz
Dz caused by a pathogen
Definition: Contagious, infectious dz
A dz that can be transmitted between animals
A dz causing organism
Definition: Incubation period
Time from entry of pathogen until signs of dz occur
Definition: Subclinical or uapparent infection
Pathogen present but no signs of dz
Two types of unapparent infections
Carrier and latent
An infected individual that never shows signs of dz but sheds agents. Must be living. Appears healthy
Definition: Latent infection
An infected individual that does not show signs of dz until stressed, then the agent is shed and clinical signs appear. Look healthy until stressed.
Anything that transmits a contagious dz
3 types of vectors
Biological, Mechanical, Fomite
Definition: Biological vector
Definition: Mechanical vector
Living organism that spreads agent but is not infected
Non-living objects that transmit dz.
Carrier or alternate host. Agent is maintained in reservoir species which are a source of infection. Living/ non-living material. Will most often make ill but not always.
Dz contagious from animal to man.
Definition: Reverse zoonotic
Dz contagious from man to animals
Dz that is present in the community all the time.
A diseased state or ration of Sick to Well in a population. Usually expressed as a ratio. Sick: Well. Can also be expressed as a percentage.
Number of deaths among exposed or infected individuals. Either death among sick only or death among exposed only.
Signs that are unique to a specific dz
The ability to ward of dz through the body's defense mechanisms.
Vulnerability or lack of resistance to a dz.
The three factors that interact in infectious dzs
- 1. Host factors
- 2. Environmental factors
- 3. Agent factors
Examples of host factors.
- Health status/ Meds
- Nutritional status
- Immunization status
- Temperature and humidity
What does crowding increase?
- #/ carriers
- Concentration of agent
- Exposure frequency
What does crowding decrease?
- Amount of exposure needed
Definition: Non-specific resistance
Immediate protection. Provides general resistance to a dz.
Definition: Specific resistance
Takes longer to form, defense is to one pathogen only
What is the first line of defense and what does it provide?
Skin & MMs; Mechanical and chemical protection
What does the production of mucus and other body fluids do?
Dilutes and washes away microbes.
What are examples of chemical protection?
- Gastric juice
What is the second line of defense?
What proteins are included in the second line of defense?
- Complement system
What does transferrin do?
Binds to iron so bacteria can't use it
What does interferon do?
A protein produced by infected cells to help unaffected cells start protecting themselves.
What is the complement system?
A protein in plasma which enahnces the immune, allergenic and inflammatory responses. Normally inactive, is activated by the ag-ab complex.
What is the third line of defense?
What cells are involved in phagocytosis?
What is phagocytosis?
Ingestion of microbes or foreign materials by cells
What is neutrophil?
1st responder WBC
Increase in body temp, thought to mobilize defense systems, accelerates repairs, reduces duration of infection or inhibits pathogens
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