Important people for history

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  1. Sacco and Vanzetti
    They were two immigrants who were arrested and charged for robbery/murder. They were sentenced to death even though the evidence was circumstantial.
  2. Charles Evans Hughes
    Secretary of state, at the conference of Washington Naval Conference he urged that no more warships were to be built for ten years. He said that U.S., G.B., Japan, France and Italy should put their largest ships together. They agreed.
  3. John L. Lewis
    Protested and a leader for coal miners. They wanted higher wages and shorter hours, he ordered up a strike.
  4. Albert B. Fall
    A part of the Teapot Dome scandal. He gave secretly land to Mammoth, he was found guilty of bribery.
  5. Calvin Coolidge
    President in the !920's, he favored government policies that would keep taxes down and profits up, also give businesses more credit to help expand. He wanted enterpirse to expand and flourish.
  6. Clarence Darrow
    A lawyer who defended Scopes, who was biology teacher that taught evolution which became illegal. Darrow defended him when he was sent to court, he was found guilty and fined 100 dollars.
  7. Charles A. Lindberg
    Made the first non-stop solo flight across the Atlantic. He stood for the honesty and bravery that America seemed to be lacking in.
  8. George Gershwin
    A composer who made jazz.
  9. Georgia O'Keefe
    Made intense and bright paintings that showed to grandeur of New York.
  10. Sinclair Lewis
    First American to win a Nobel Prize in literature for Babbitt.
  11. F. Scott Fitzgerald
    Wrote the Great Gatsby he showed the bad side of gaiety and freedom showing the wealthy people living a life with gilded surroundings.
  12. James Weldon Johnson
    NAACP excutive made a organization inwhich to fight for A.A's rights, made antilynching a main priority.
  13. Marcus Garvey
    Immigrant from Jamaica who though African Americans should make a seperate society.
  14. Claude McKay
    Jamaican immigrant who fought for A.A. rights, and said they should resist prejudice and discrimination. He also wrote poems and books.
  15. Langston Hughes
    A poet who described the difficulty of working class A.A.'s
  16. Alfred E. Smith
    Ran against Herbert Hoover in the election of 1928. He was good in the public and a good loyal man, though he lost the election.
  17. Herbert Hoover
    Won the election of 1928, he could point to years of prosperity under republican rules since 1920. He didn't believe in the government controlling businesses in trouble.
  18. Franklin Roosevelt
    Was elected president in 1932. He made the New Deal which he wanted to improve; relief for the needy, economic recovery, and financial reform. The 100 days was a time when more than 15 acts were passed through congress which expanded the fed. govs. role in the nations economy.
  19. Huey Long
    Turned against the New Deal, he wanted to win presidency himself along with proposed Share-Our-Wealth which began very popular.
  20. Eleanor Roosevelt
    A social reformer who was very active in helping people. She observed the social conditions of the country and reminded the president about the troubles people were going through.
  21. Frances Perkins
    first female cabinet member, she helped create social security and supervised labor legistlation.
  22. Mary McLeod Bethune
    An educator who help promote opportunities for A.A. she was hired by the president to Division Negro Affairs of The NYA. She organized "black cabinet" to advise FDR on racial issues.
  23. John Collier
    Was appointed to the Indian affairs and helped them create the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
  24. Joseph Stalin
    Soviet Union communist leader who made agriculture and industrial growth the main priority. He created totalitarian government in which nobody has any rights.
  25. Benito Mussolini
    Head of Italy, created facism and also his army were called black shirts. He called himself Il Duce.
  26. Adolf Hitler
    Made Nazism, and wrote the book Main Kampf, he was the leaders of the Nazis. He believed in more lebensraum(living space). His private army were the Brown Shirt.
  27. Francisco Franco
    Led the spanish army throughout spain. This was when the Spanish Civil War had taken place. His troops were backed by Mussolni.
  28. Neville Chamberlain
    British Prime ministor who wanted to avoid war and signed the Munich Agreement.
  29. Charles De Gaulle
    a french general who fled to england to set a government after Geremany who had taken over Paris.
  30. Hideki Tojo
    Chief of staff of Japan's Kwantung Army who launched the invasion of China. They pushed them south by taking over the French military bases. The U.S. then cut off trade with Japan.
  31. George Marshall
    Army Chief of Staff General that wanted the WAAC to form. In this case this would allow women to work noncombat positions in the war.
  32. A. Philip Randolph
    Founder of Sleeping Car Porters and a respected A.A. leader, he organized a march to go through Washington D.C. Roosevelt tried to call it off, but Randolph insisted it go on. Roosevelt go the march to be cancelled but in trade told all industries to not discriminate.
  33. Dwight D. Eisenhower
    A commander in the U.S. army who made Operation Torch. The invasion was at North Africa. Became President after truman who wanted to go to the all out war in which they made stronger militaries.
  34. Omar Bradley
    Unleashedmassive air and land bombardment against enemeny at St. Lo, made a gap line.
  35. George Patton
    A general German who had his Third Army who was blocked by Bradley.
  36. Harry S. Truman
    Became president after Roosevelt(the 33rd) right before/during V-E day. He was known to be widely known and confident, he could make difficult decisions but accpet the consequences, he had to face: dealing with communsims threats and restoring the American economy after war ended.
  37. Douglas MacArthur
    A general who was in command of the Allied forces in the Philippines, Roosevelt ordered him off the island and he swore to everyone he would be back. Wanted to lead a war into China but Truman refused. MacArthur tried to go through with it but ended up getting fired.
  38. Chester Nimitz
    The commander of the U.S. naval forces in the Pacific went to defend the island of Midway. They then attacked the Japanese fleet leaving behind a devesting result.
  39. J. Robert Oppenheimer
    The scientist who created the atomic bomb.
  40. James Farmer
    A civil rights leader and created the organization of CORE(Congress of Racial Equality). this was to confront segregation in the North. It's theory was mostly sit-ins.
  41. Chiange Kai-Shek
    Nationalist leader of China, supported by America who sent them about $3 billion in aid.
  42. Mao Zedong
    The Communist leader of China who worked to gain peasant support by encouraging them to read, helped improve food production. This put a lot of China under communist control and under the Red Army.
  43. Alger Hiss
    Was accused of spying for the Soviet Union, he ended up being blamed for perjury and was sent to jail.
  44. Ethel and Julius Rosenburg
    They were accused of giving away information to the Soviet Union, they refused by using the fifth amendment as a defense, but they were found guilty of espionage and sentenced to death.
  45. Joseph McCarthy
    McCarthyism was created after him; which is accusing someone of being a communist without having any evidence. He later accused members of the army and made the public hate him.
  46. John Foster Dulles
    Eisenhower's Secretary of State who was an anti-communist. He said U.S. could prevent communism by promising to use all forces, including nuclear against any agressor nation.
  47. Francis Gary
    The pilot of the last U-2 plane to spie on the communist, his flight was shot down and the pictures were captured as well as Gary who was put in jail for 10 years.
  48. Nikita Khrushchev
    Became the new leader of the Soviet Union, he thought communism should take over the world.
  49. Dr. Jonas Salk
    Made a vacine that could kill of polio this was a major breakthrough.
  50. John F. Kennedy
    The 35th president of America, he had to deal with several cold war difficulties. He won against Nixon, mainly in the television broadcast when he was comfortable with talking to the public on live TV.
  51. Fidel Castro
    A leader of Cuba, the reason why Eisenhower cut off relations with Cuba. He was a communist who wanted aid from the Soviet Union. He was an allie of Khrushchev.
  52. Lyndon Baines Johnson
    Became president and made for his deal of the Great Society. He wanted to make a legislative program that would help to end poverty and racial injustice. He wanted to created a higher standard of living and equal opportunity for everybody.
  53. Thurgood Marshall
    A lawyer who fought in the case of against public segregation also for students in school.
  54. Rosa Parks
    Boycotted on a Montgomery bus when she refused to give up her seat to a white man. She was arrested which angered many people, she made a new revolution to standing up for civil rights.
  55. Martin Luther King, Jr.
    Elected to lead the group Montgomery Improvement Association, he learned a Ph. D at Boston University. He was assainated in Memphis, TE
  56. James Meredith
    An air force veteran who won a federal court case to let him enroll in a all-white University of Mississippi, who was nicknamed Ole Miss.
  57. Fannie Lou Hamer
    Daughter of Mississippi sharecroppers, she was in a broadcasted speech and shocked the country when she was put in jail for registuring a vote in 1962.
  58. Malcolm X
    A leader for A.A. rights wanted people to take control of their culture and communities. He created the Nation of Islam/black muslims. This helped many gain racial pride.
  59. Stokely Carmichael
    SNCC leader, led his followers in a march to finish what Meredith started. He set up tents on the grounds of an all black high school.
  60. Ho Chi Minh
    Leader of vietnamese in China, he created the Vietminh; which was to win Vietnam's independence. He was a communist leader and wanted to liberate the South from French control with the help of the North.
  61. Ngo Dinh Diem
    South Vietnamese president who was an anti-communist, he didn't want to be in the election of 1956 because he though that Minh would win. U.S. said they'd give him military aid as long as he upheld a strong government, however this didn't work.
  62. Robert McNamara
    Secretary of Defense who took major role in leading armies in the Vietnam war.
  63. Dean Rusk
    Secretary of State who said we shouldn't abandon in the South unless we know for sure they won't be completely destroyed without us.
  64. Willian Westmoreland
    American commander who led in South Vietnam, he wanted more troops, he said the ARVN was not strong enough without the U.S. . He played a major role throughout the Vietnam war.
  65. Clark Clifford
    Filled McNamara's position and picked by Johnson, he concluded the war was unwinnable.
  66. Robert Kennedy
    JFK's brother, who decided not to run until he saw how much Johnson was failing in the election, he was later assainated soon after MLK was.
  67. Hubert Humphrey
    He was Johnson's v.p. but was running againt McCarthy, he was loyal and a dove. He had Johnson's support which later helped him gain a large lead in the election.
  68. George Wallace
    Helped Nixon's candacy he was a democrat running for school segregation and state's rights. He attracted Northern whites and five Southern states.
  69. Richard Nixon
    Won the election of 1968, he wanted to withdrawal the troops and end the war in Vietnam. He thought of the process called "peace with honor." During his second term he couldn't get a respectable peace in Vietnam. He made a plan called New Federalism which was to distrbute a portion of federal power to state and local governments.
  70. Henry Kissinger
    National Security Adviser who made a plan to end Americas involvement in Vietnam called Vietnamization.
  71. Cesar Chavez
    Wanted to organize a union to protest against California's grape farmers. He created United Farm Workers Orgainizing Committee.
  72. Betty Friedam
    She wrote the Feminine Mystique, she addressed about womens rights.
  73. Gloria Steinem
    Started the Ms. magazine, she was was a journalist, a political activist, and a supporter of the women's liberation movement.
  74. Phyllis Schlafly
    A consevative who was against Equal Rights Amendment because she thought it would lead to a parade of horribles.
  75. H. R. Haldeman
    White house chief of staff who was in part of Nixon's loyal small group. He helped him win his election.
  76. John Mitchell
    He resigned as attorney general to run against Nixon's reelection campaign as CRP's director.
  77. John Sirica
    The judge of of the watercase he sentence John McCord who said that Nixon's adminstration were involved in the breakin.
  78. John Dean
    He said that one meeting the president discussed strategies for the robery.
  79. Alexander Butterfield
    Later came out and said that Nixon has taped all of his conversations.
  80. General R. Ford
    Was the next president in line after Nixon was caught and resigned after the watergate scandal. After that he pardoned Nixon and tried to curb inflation.
  81. Jimmy Carter
    He became a democratic nominee who focused his attention on battling the country's energy and economic crises but couldn't get out of the economic slump.
  82. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
    Muslim religious leader who led the rebels of overthrowing the shah and to establish a reliegious state bad on strict obedience.
  83. Rachel Carson
    Wrote a book on how pesticides were extremely damaging to nature and wildlife.
Card Set
Important people for history
All the people you will need to study for ss final.
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