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  1. Abscisic Acid
    Plant hormone that inhibits growth and influences stomatal closure.
  2. Abscission
    Separation of a leaf or fruit from a plant.
  3. Acceptor Molecules
    Compounds such as NAD and FAD that can accept hydrogen atoms and electrons removed from compounds and transfer them to other compounds.
  4. Acquired Immune Deficieny Syndrome (AIDS)
    Disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that results in significant damage to the immune system, making the infected person particularly susceptible to infectious disease.
  5. Acquired Immunity
    Characterised by the presence in an individual of antibodies to a particular infective agent: in active acquired immunity, individuals produce their own antibodies as a result of exposure to an antigen; in passive acquired immunity, individuals recieve antibodies from an outside source.
  6. Active Immunity
    Immunity that develops when an organism makes its own antibodies; antibodies may be produced naturally in response to chance infection or maybe induced by vaccination.
  7. Active Transport
    Net movement of dissolved substances across a cell membrane by an energy-requiring process that moves substances against a concentration gradient from a region of lower to higher concentration.
  8. Adenine
    One of the Purine bases found in the nucleotides that are the building blocks of DNA and RNA.
  9. Adenosine Diphosphate
    Compoud cotaining adenine ad two molecules of phosphate; in an energy - requiring reaction, it can combine with a third molecule of phosphate to form ATP.
  10. Adenosine Triphosphate
    Copound containing Adenosine and three phosphate molecules, the major supplies of which are produced in the mitochondria; common source of chemical energy for cells.
  11. Aerobic
    Requires Oxygen
  12. Aerobic Respiration
    Break down of glucose to simple inorganic compounds in the presence of oxygen and with release of energy that is transferred to ATP.C6H12O6 + 6O2 >6CO2+6H2O glucose +oxygen> carbon dioxide +water
  13. Affector Neurons
    Also called sensory neurons; type of nerve cell that transmits information about changes in external or internal conditions to the central nervous system.
  14. Agglutination
    Clumping of cells or particles brought about by antibodies binding to antigens on the surfaces of the cells or particles.
  15. Albinism
    Inherited condition in which pigment production does not occur normally; in the form known as oculo-cutaneous albinism, pigment is absent from the skin, hair and iris.
  16. Allergic Reaction
    (Allergy) rapid immune responses to normally harmless antigens such as dust or pollen; involves action of the mast cells.
  17. Alpha cells
    Cells in the pancreas that synthesise and secrete the hormone gycagon.
  18. Amino Acid Derivatives
    One category of water soluble hormone.
  19. Amino Acids
    Basic building blocks or sub units of polypeptide chains and proteins.
  20. Amniocentesis
    Procedure in which a sample is obtained of the amniotic fluid that surrounds a fetus in the uterus and contains fetal cells.
  21. Amiotic fluid
    Fluid surrounding and protecting the embryo or fetus in the amniotic sac
  22. Anaerobic
    Refers to an organism that does not require oxygen to live; refers to an environment in which oxygen is not present.
  23. Anaerobic Respiration
    Form of respiration occuring in the absence of oxygen in which glucose is broken down to smaller compounds, such as lactate, with release of energy that is transferred to ATP.
  24. Antibiotics
    Naturally occuring substances that inhibit the growth of, or destroy, bacteria and other micro-organisms
  25. Antibodies
    Proteins produced by animals in response to antigens and which react specifically with the antigen that induced their formation.
  26. Anti-Codon
    Sequence of three bases in a transfer RNA molecule that can pair with the complementary codon messenger RNA molecule.
  27. Antigens
    Compounds, usually proteins,that can trigger the immune system to respond in various ways, including antibody production.
  28. Antitoxins
    Protein produced by animals in response to toxin which reacts specifically with the toxin that iduced its formation.
  29. Apical Dominance
    Influence exerted by a terminal bud that suppresses growth of lateral buds.
  30. Apoptosis
    The natural death of cells, also called programmed cell death.
  31. Auto-Immune Disease
    Diseases in which the immune system fails to identify 'self' material and makes antibodies against the body's own tissues.
  32. Autonomic Nervous System
    Also called involuntary nervous system; in vertebrates, nerves that transmit messages away from the brain and spinal cord to smooth (involuntary)muscle, heart and various glands.
  33. Auxin
    Group of plant hormones that control cell elongation found in tip of plant (coleoptile) grows towards the sun is produced more on the side away from sun
  34. Axon
    Extention of nerve cell along which impulses are transmitted away from that cell.
  35. B Cells
    Lymphocytes that give rise to plasma cells that produce antibodies against foriegn material.
  36. Bacteria
    Microscopic, usually uncellular, organism, and member of Kingdom Monera
  37. Bacteriophages
    Types of virus that infect bacteria.
  38. Base
    Varying part of the structure of nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA and RNA; bases in DNA are Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine and Thymine; bases in RNA are A,G,C and uracil U.
  39. B-Memory Cells
    Particular kind of B cells that can respond quickly to a specific antigen that has been previously encountered
  40. Bone Marrow
    Fatty substances in the internal cavity of bones, the site of blood cells formation. and blood cells and B and T cells.
  41. C3 Plants
    Plants in which the first product of the light independent stage of photosynthesis is a compoud containing three carbon atoms.
  42. C4 plants
    Plants in which the first product of the light independent stage of photosynthesis is a compoud containing four carbon atoms.
  43. Calvin Cycle
    Cycle of reactions occuring in the stroma of chloroplasts in the light independent stage of photosythesis during which carbon dioxide is progressively reduced to sugar.
  44. Capsule
    Gelatinous layer surrounding the cell wall of some bacteria.
  45. Carbohydrates
    Organic compounds that include sugars, starch and cellulose and are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
  46. Carbon Dioxide Fixation
    Also called carbon fixation; occurs during photosynthesis when carbon is moved from a gas, carbon dioxide, into an organic compound.
  47. Carrier
    In infection, refers to a person who shows no sign of an infectious disease but is host to the causative agent and can transmit it to other people in genetics, refers to a heterozygous organism that does not show a particular trait but can transmit to its offspring to the allele responsible for that trait.
  48. Carrier Protein
    Protein tht binds to specific substance and failitates its movement; may be carrier for lipophillic hormone for transport in the blood; also refers to proteins that facilitate movement across the plasma membrane.
  49. Cell Body
    That part of a neuron that contains the nucleus
  50. Cell Wall
    Semi-rigid structure located outside the cell membrane of plants,algae, fungi and bacteria.
  51. Cellular Agents
    In the context of disease and infection refers to cellular organisms such as bacteria, in contrast to infective agents such as viruses and prions that lack a cellualr structure.
  52. Cellular Immunity
    Response to infection involving action phagocytes and T cells.
  53. Cellular respiration
    Process of transferring energy present in organic compounds t a form useable by cells typically ATP.
  54. Chargaff's Rule
    Regularity observed by Chargaff that, in DNA, the relative proportions of A and T are equal and, similarl, the proportion of C is equalto that of G.
  55. Chemical Energy
    Potential Energy stored in substances that become available when certain types of chemical reactions occur.
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