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2011-06-05 01:30:41
Cooper Heron Heward

Chapter 1 - Definition and Charactistics of Applied Behavior Analysis
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  1. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
    The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior.
  2. behaviorism
    The philosophy of a science of behavior; there are various forms of behaviorism
  3. determinism
    The assumption that the universe is a lawful and orderly place in which phenomena orccur in relation to othe revents and not in a willy-nilly, accidental fashion
  4. empricism
    The objective observation of the phenomena of interest; objective observations are "independent of the individual prejudices, tastes, and private opinions of the scientist. . . . Results of emprical methods are objectivein that they are open to anyone's observation and do not depend on the subjective belief of the individual scientist"
  5. experiment
    A carefully controlled comparison of some measure of the phenomoenon of interest (the dependent variable) under two or more different conditions in which only one factor at a time (the independent variable) differs from on e condition to another.
  6. experimental analysis of behavior (EAB)
    A natural science approach to the study of behavior as a subject matter in its own right founded by B. F. Skinner; methodological featueres include rate of response as a basic dependent variable, repeated or continuouse measurement of clearly definded response classes, within-subject experimental compariesons instead of grup design, visual analysis of graphed data insetad of statistical inference, and an emphais on describing functional relations between behavior and controlling variables in the environment over formal theory testing
  7. explantory fiction
    A fictitious or hypothetical variable that often takes the form of another name for the observed phenomenon it claims to explain and contributes nothing to a functional account or understanding of the phenomenomenon, such as "intelligence" or "cognitive awareness" as explanations for why and organism pushes the lever when teh light is on adn food is available but does not push the lever when the light is off and no food ais available.
  8. functional relation
    A verbal statement summarizing the results of an experiment (or grup of related experiments) that describes the occurence of the phenomena under study as a function of the operation of one or more specified and controlled variables in the experiment in which a specific change in one event (the dependent variable) can be produced by manipulating another event (the independent variable) and that the change in the depedent variable was unlikely the result of other factors (confounding variables); in behvior analysis exprest as b=f(x1), (x2), . . . , where b is the behavior and x1, x2, etc., are environmental variables of which the behavior is a function.
  9. hypothetical construct
  10. mentalism
  11. methodological behaviorism
  12. parsimony
  13. philosophic doubt
  14. radical behaviorism
  15. replication
  16. science
    Science is a systematic approach to the systematic approach to the understanding of the natural phenomena - as evidenced by description, prediction, and control - that relies on deterninism as its fundamental assumption, empricism as its prim derective, experimentation as its basic strategy, replication as its necessary requiremtn for believablity, parsimiony as its conservative value, and philosophic doubt as its guiding conscience.