The Urinary System

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The Urinary System
2011-06-05 19:42:28

The Urinary System
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  1. Uro
  2. A specialist who deals with the female urinary system and the male genitourinary system is called what?
  3. what is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system
    gemitourinary system
  4. What are the structures of the urinary system?
    two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra
  5. What extracts waste from the blood, balances the body fluids, and form urine?
  6. What conduct urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder?
  7. What serves as a reservoir for urine
    urinary bladder
  8. What conducts urine from the bladder to the outside of the body for elimination
  9. The volume of circulating blood effects blood pressure, the what helps control blood volume by excretign or conserving water?
    urinary system
  10. an accumulation of water in the tissues
  11. an abnormal decrease of water in the tissues
  12. What are two reddish-brown, bean0shaped organs located in the small of the back at the lower edge of the ribson either side of the vertebral column
  13. Maintenance of Homeostatis: controls water and blood volume, maintains blood pressure, regulates electrolyets levels, reabsorbs some electrolytes, maintaines pH balance, and activates vitamin D for bone calcification
    Functions of the urinary system
  14. Manufacture: secretes renin and erythropoietin
    Functions of the urinary system
  15. Processing of wastes: proms urine in the kidneys and stores urine within the bladder
    funtions of the urinary system
  16. Eliminations: eliminates protein wastes, exvess salts, and toxic materials.
    Function of the urinary system
  17. Kidenys are said to be this because they lie behind the peritoneum.
  18. is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity
  19. is an enzyme that participates in the body's renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that mediates extracellular volume (i.e., that of the blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction. Thus, it regulates the body's mean arterial blood pressure.
  20. is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and water (fluid) balance.
    renin-angiotensin system
  21. is a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production.
  22. red blood cell
  23. Ren
  24. If something is this it means that they have a heavily supplied with blood vessels.
  25. On the medial surface of the kidneys, toward the middle of the body, is and indented area called what which is a notch through which the blood vessels, nerves, and ureter enter
  26. Bu regulating what the kidneys control the volume of body fluids
    sodium chloride
  27. By balancing what the kidneys do this by eliminating acids directly into the urin or by exreting acids bound to chemical buffers.
  28. The outside of the kidney
    renal capsule
  29. is the outer reddish-brown part of the kidneys that extends from the outside of the renal capsule tot he base of the renal pyramids and inot the spaces between them. Renal corpuscles and the proximal and distal protions of the convulted tubes make up the major portion of this
    renal cortex
  30. What contain the remainder of the renal tubules, the loops of Henle, and the collecting tubules.
    renal medulla
  31. The tubles from the renal medulla form a cone-shaped structure called what?
    renal tubules
  32. what are teh cells that form urine. Therefore, the rest of the urine expels urine.
  33. at one end of each nephron is a cluseter of capillaries called what that filter blood
  34. The outside layer of the glomeruli called what has large openins aka pores that allow all blood componenets except RBC to pass through
  35. The middle layer of the hlemeruli called what prevents the passage of large proteins through it by using giltration
    basement membrane
  36. Blood, with its wastes and food products, eneter the glomerulus through what
    afferent arteriole
  37. In the kidney, a ----- is the initial blood-filtering component of a nephron. It consists of two structures: a glomerulus and a Bowman's capsule.
    renal corpuscle
  38. A --- is a capillary tuft that performs the first step in filtering blood to form urine.
    It is surrounded by Bowman's capsule in nephrons of the vertebrate kidney. It receives its blood supply from an afferent arteriole of the renal circulation.
  39. Largest portion of the nephrons are in the cortex (outer part) and one small tubule is located in the medulla.
  40. Part of the nephron is the glomerulus, that is enclosed by the bowman's capsule.
  41. Blood and its wastes enter the glomerulus through what?
    afferent arterioles
  42. this consitst of specialized glandular cells that are responsible for maintaining blood pressure
    JGA juxtaglomerular apparatus
  43. What is an important regulator in the concentration of dilution into the urine?
    collecting tubule
  44. --- is a cup-like sac at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine. A glomerulus is enclosed in the sac
    Bowman's capsule
  45. water, with its dissolved contents, travels the length of what?
    convoluted tubule
  46. From the Bowman's capsule the convoluted tubule has three portions. The first called proximal convluted tubule, the next the loop of Henle, and the final which is at the end of the nephron is the distal convoluted tubule.
  47. After blood leaves the distal convoluted tubul it moves to the collecting tubule. This is where the antidiuretic hormone makes the tubule more permeable to water
  48. is an important regulator in the concentration of dilution of urine
    collecting tubule
  49. The capilaries that surround the collecting tubule have the job of reabsorbing as much water, salts, and glucose.
  50. From the collecting tubule the urine and waste products continue to the renal pyramid to the renal pelvis and onward to the ureter and bladder.
  51. Pathways of urine...
    ---- ... glomerulus and Bowmans capusle... proximal convoluted tubule ... loop of henle ... distal convoluted tubule ... juxtaglomerular apparatus ... collecting duct (tubule)....
    Afferent arteriole
  52. Pathways of urine...
    Afferent arteriole ... -----... proximal
    convoluted tubule ... loop of henle ... distal convoluted tubule ...
    juxtaglomerular apparatus ... collecting duct (tubule)....
    glomerulus and Bowmans capusle
  53. Pathways of urine...
    Afferent arteriole ... glomerulus and Bowmans capusle...---- ... loop of henle ... distal convoluted tubule ...
    juxtaglomerular apparatus ... collecting duct (tubule)....

    convoluted tubule
  54. Pathways of urine...
    Afferent arteriole ... glomerulus and Bowmans capusle... proximal
    convoluted tubule ... ---- ... distal convoluted tubule ...
    juxtaglomerular apparatus ... collecting duct (tubule)....
    loop of henle
  55. Pathways of urine...
    Afferent arteriole ... glomerulus and Bowmans capusle... proximal
    convoluted tubule ... loop of henle ... === ...
    juxtaglomerular apparatus ... collecting duct (tubule)....
    distal convoluted tubule
  56. Pathways of urine...
    Afferent arteriole ... glomerulus and Bowmans capusle... proximal
    convoluted tubule ... loop of henle ... distal convoluted tubule ...
    === ... collecting duct (tubule)....
    juxtaglomerular apparatus
  57. Pathways of urine...
    Afferent arteriole ... glomerulus and Bowmans capusle... proximal
    convoluted tubule ... loop of henle ... distal convoluted tubule ...
    juxtaglomerular apparatus ... ====)....
    collecting duct (tubule
  58. Function: filters water, wastes, glucose, and salts out of blood
    glomerulus and bowmans capsule
  59. Reasbsorbs some needed electrolytes, water, and glucose, as well as some amino acids and bicarbonate
    convoluted tubules and proximal convulted tubule
  60. reabsorbes water and additional electrolyetes
    loop of henle
  61. reabsorbs sodium, water, and remainder of glucose
    distal convoluted tubule
  62. is an important hormone that is blood pressure regulations
  63. if blood volume becomes too low what secretes renin into the bloodstream
  64. What promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and to further elevate blood pressure. IT also respons to high blood levels of potassium or low levels of sodium.
  65. renin stimulates what that causes blood vessles to constric, directly rasing blood pressure and stimulats the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone
  66. If levels are what aldosterone will excrete potassium and reaborn sodium. Sodium will then return to blood and water follows salt and potassium ion are excreted into urine.
    high potassium and low sodium
  67. What increases the reabsorption of water by the kidneys tibules and therby decreasing the amount of urine secreted. This results in the maintenance of circulting blood volume and blood presure
  68. The what gland secreted antidiuretic hormone due to angiotensin II or low fluid levels.
    pituitary gland
  69. What stimulates the thrist center in the hypothalamus to incraese fluid intake, resulting in an increase in blood volume and sibswquently rise in blood pressure.
    angiotensin II
  70. What is a hormone secreted by the cells in the atria of the heart. This hormone increases kidney filtrationand blood flow when blood volume increases. This then promotes the excretion of both water and sodium through the kidneys and suppresion the sectrion of ADH and aldosterone. Therefore, there is less strain of the heart.
    Atrial natriuretic peptide
  71. This hormone is produced by the kidneys and stimulates the stem cells in the red bone marrow to incrase the fommation of red blood cells. This is stimulated when hypoxia is recognized
  72. formation of red blood cells
  73. low blood oxygen
  74. red blood cells
  75. This is synthesized in the skin by UV rays in sunlight. It plays and important role in the absoprtion of calcium from the gastrointestinal tract.
    Vitamin D
  76. is necessary for the formation of bones and teeth
  77. For this to be used fromt he sun it must be metabolically concerted in the livern then in the kidneys. Therefore, people with renal disease cannot coverte this to the active form.
    Vitamin D
  78. Kidneys receive their blood supply from the
    renal arteries.
  79. the renal arteries are full of oxygenated blood, become afferent arterioles, that supply the glomeruli, then go to efferent arteriles, efferent arterioles branch and become peritubular capilaries which drain into the veins ending at the renal vein. This vein then goes into the inferior vena cava from return the blood to the heart.
  80. carry substance fromt he kidney back to the circultory system for reuse and norish renal tissue
    peritubular capillaries
  81. begin the formation of urine
  82. Urine travels from the renal pelvis into the what wich are narrow tubes that attack to the kidneys at the renal pelvis and carry urine from the kidney down to the bladder.
  83. what when it is empty lies behin the symphis pubis, stores urine,
    urinary bladder
  84. what relaxes when it senses the body's need to void
    internal sphincter
  85. The bladder contains three openings: two from the ureters and one into the what? This is a tube that urine passes to the outside of the body?
  86. in men, this, passess through the prostate gland, where two ducts fromt he male sex glands join it, and then through the length of the penis
  87. The womens what opens to the outside at the urinary meatus or urinary canal
  88. To increase blood pressure JBA secretes renin which will work by causing vasocontriction of the arterioles, incrasing glomerular filtration rate, preventing water and salts from being excreted and increasing blood volume
  89. To decrease blood pressure...the afferent arteroles contrict causing decreased flow to the kidneys this then channels blood to vital body areas and results in decreased urinary output.
  90. is the process of removing particles from a solution by allowing the liquid solvent to pass across a barrier
  91. is a specific term used for movement of wastes across the glomeruli in to the bowmans capsule.
    glomerular filtration
  92. when blood enter the glomerulus and flows through smaller and smaller blood vessiles, this causes increased pressure within the bessels, and forces a fluid called glomnerular filtrate ou of the glomerulus into the bowmans capsule.