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How (and from where) did the First Americans come to this land?
Paleo-Indians came to America from the land bridge between North America and Asia known as Beringia.
How would you describe the great cultures of central America?
Olmecs, Mayans, Aztecs.
How did the U.S. Indians compare or contrast with these cultures?
The U.S. Indians were more stable, lived off the land, did not fight much, and was happy with what they had.
Who can claim to be the "discoverer" of America?
Columbus can claim to be the "discoverer" of America because his finding America made a huge impact. New products became available because of it, people moved to America and trade occurred more.
Why did Europe's expansion into the New World have to wait until the 15th and 16th centuries?
1) Britain's geographical position was not good. They had to travel opposite (against currents) to get to America which made it harder.
2) Europe was mostly agriculture and did not have a lot of money during this time (Renaissance there was delayed).
3) Europe was in a costly and bloody war during the 15th century (families fighting for power).
4) The Kings wife was Spanish and Spain was controlling America.
Why were early voyages by Spain?
The Renaissance was going on in Spain during this time and many intelligent people moved there. They were also not in war with anyone so they had money to make voyages. Spain was also closer to the New World and could go with the currents to get there easily.
What was the pattern of Spanish expansion in the New World?
They came in from Mexico and went north going towards the sea (like around Florida). They also would go searching for gold throughout the New World.
What did the leading Spanish explorers of the U.S. discover?
The leading Spanish explorers discovered that the New World did not have a bunch of riches and that there were other people living there.
Why was England's move into colonization slow -- & what changed this?
England's move was slow because King Henry VIII's wife was Spanish and Spain wanted to control the New World. After Henry VIII moved the church from Catholic to Church of England and divorced his wife they had no reason to make Spain happy and could colonize there.
Who pushed England's American thrust?
Richard Hakluyt was a writer about voyages and pushed for England to voyage to the New World.
Why were Joint Stock Co. needed?
England was still poor from the long wars and Renaissance not hitting them yet. Joint Stock was needed to help fund the voyages without one person investing and losing everything.
Why did the Jamestown settlers suffer so?
Jamestown settlers suffered because it was set-up as a trading post/branch office and not as a colony. Only men were sent over and very few who knew how to do any of the work (only someone to make barrels and a perfumer) as they assumed Indians would do all of the work but they refused to do so. They also only worked 4-5 hours a day which did not get a lot of work done.
Why did the Virginia Company fail, though the colony survived?
The Virginia Company failed because they had poor leadership and plans. They were offering land for free to people who came over but not many people came though so this made them go broke. The colony survived because the settlers would rather live than die so actually worked.
Describe "Puritanism." How did Puritans compare with other Englishmen?
"Puritanism" is a group from the church who wanted to purify the church. Puritans were the same as other Englishmen except they thought the church needed to be fixed a little.
How did Plymouth differ from Mass. Bay?
Plymouth was not under control of England at all (as they were suppose to go to N.Y. and ended up elsewhere) and was always small and simple. Mass. Bay was controlled under the King but still had religion freedom. Every family there had a vote and grew to be very large.
What was the "mission" of Winthrop and Mass. Bay?
They wanted to show the country that they were right when it came to religion (as they were non-seperatists). They wanted to do this though on England land, under the king but away from the king.
Why did so many leave for other colonies?
Who was Roger Williams?
Roger Williams preached extreme separatism. He thought that the Bay Colonists were impure in the sight of the Lord because it was to close to the Church of England. He also stated the validity of the colonies because the King never bought the land from the Indians. He also thought nobody should be stated for their religious beliefs as that was God's responsibility not mans. He worked out his idea's in the village he founded of Providence.
Who was Thomas Hooker?
Thomas Hooker was a minister who also wrote. His writings helped defend New Englanders Congregational church polity. His writings helped blueprint a colony later on.
Who was Anne Hutchinson and her beliefs?
Ann Hutchinson was a threat to the peace of Mass. Bay. She preached that the ministers were using doctrines very close to the Church of England. Her idea's could not be tested by the Scripture because she insisted they were from a divine inspiration. Her ideas were stated to be civil and religious anarchy however many people believed in her. She took her followers to Rhode Island/Portsmouth after being exiled.
What were some of the new colonies spun off from Massachusetts?
New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Haven.
What led to the second wave of colonies? What was the initial nature of these colonies? Briefly describe each.
New York - The Duke of York started the colony as an income supplement. Commercial Venture.
New Jersey - Was given to 3 people as a thank you from King Charles for their help in the war. Quaker settlement and consolidation of new English territory.
Pennsylvania - Was a refuge for English Quakers by William Penn. He was given the land from King Charles.
Delaware - Commercial Venture.
What was mercantilism, and how did the main Acts carry this out?
Mercantilism - goal - to correct the economy so as to promote National Strength & Prosperity.
- 1) Self Sufficiency
- 2) An access growing amount of money
What population trends emerged by the late 17th century?
Who was Metacomet? What caused King Phillip's War? The result?
Metacomet was a Wampanoag Indian Chief. The King Phillip War (Metacomet) began after Metacomet was tired of the English and tried to push them out of the New World. The war ended when Metacomet died. The result was that the King took over selecting the colony government and respected the Indians more.
What causes lay behind Bacon's Rebellion? What happened?
Bacon volunteered to lead a volunteer army troop to fight the Indians in return he wanted to be given official military command. After he was told no he went and started fights with friendly Indians and burned Jamestown down. After he died his followers broke up.
What was behind the "Dominion of New England?" What led to its fall?
James II wanted all North Colonies of America to be 1 super colony. There would be 1 governor, a Lt. governor, and a council to run the colony. It fell because James II was going against parliament doing whatever he wanted and so England had his daughter become queen and so the "Dominion of New England" stopped.
Did England have more control over the colonies by the 1690's?
- England's control over the colonies in 1690 was:
- 1) No more elected governors they would be appointed
- 2) When a colony passes a law it had to be sent back to England for review if those reviewing did not like it it was not passed.
Was America growing rapidly in the 18th century? In what ways?
America had quadrupled in 50 years.
- 1) Families had many children
- 2) Immigrants coming from all over (many Scottish and Germans)
- 3) People from England still coming over
- 4) Convicts - England's jails were getting full so they were told go to jail or go to America and be free
- 5) Indentured Servants - people wanting to come over but could not afford to so was getting people to pay for their way over in return to work for them for so many years free besides clothing, food, and housing.
What was "The Great Awakening"? What parts of America did it cover?
"The Great Awakening" was one of the truly National events in America. Every English colony was affected by it.
Briefly describe both its English and American leaders. What were their ideas?
John Wesley - England - Went to America for 1 year ran into a happy religious group and wanted England to be more that way - Made Methodist Church
Tennents - American - Trained ministers. Didn't care what religion you were as long as you believed.
Jonathan Edwards - America - Thought to many people were turning away from God and wanted them to get back on the path. He believed you were either saved or not and scared many people to believe again. Famous sermon was "Sinners in the hands of God"
What was the impact of the Great Awakening?
The Great Awakening turned many people back to Jesus.
How would you define "The Enlightenment"? What were covered by natural laws?
The Enlightenment was when educated individuals thought differently about God, nature, and society. Natural laws were gravity, light, weather, fish & bird migrations etc... They didn't believe everything was done because of God but because thats how it was.
Describe some of the scientists, and their accomplishments, in both England and America?
- England Scientists:
- Isaac Newton - Discovered gravity, light comes in waves, optics
- John Locke - wondered about a good government - thought English had the best government as it was mixed (King and Parliament)
- America's Scientists -
- Byrd - Experimented, knew, and had a library over medication. Also knew agriculture.
- Bartrams (father and son) - Naturalist (biologist) went around and wrote, pictured stuff, and sent them home to England.
- Younger Winthrop - determined distance between Earth and Sun with 98% accuracy, good at math, loved stars.
- Franklin - likes science (founding father of science, master at science, and wrote many books on it). Picked up optics where Newton left off, invented many things (bifocals, street lamps, old desk, printer, instrumental music etc...) he gave his inventions away for others to make.
How did Franklin typify the Enlightenment?
He gave away his inventions for others to use and build upon.
The most common type of colony by 1750?
The most common type of colony was a Royal Colony.
How did a Royal colony work?
- - Monarch (owned colony)
- - Privy Council (would sign off on decisions)
- - Board of Trade (made decisions/lived in England)
- - Royal Governor (person actually in America, single most significant leader in the colony)
- - Executive
- - Judicial
- - Legislative Branches
What were the powers of a Royal Governor?
- - Executing Laws
- - Main military commander
- - Appointed his own cabinet (w/out approval)
- - Appointed top judges
- - Appointed justice of peace
- - Legislative powers (could make recommendations, decided when legislature would meet and for what, veto decisions and would be final approval)
Why were so many Governors limited in the real exercise of power by the 1740s - 50s?
If they messed up or did not go with what England wanted than they would not get paid or they may have to pay their employees (like lt. governor). So they pretty much had to do whatever parliament wanted them to do.
Describe the earlier British-French wars and their outcome.
Earlier British-French wars England won without any problem. There was a war about power struggle and who would be more powerful in Europe which spilled over to the New World because of many riches.
What caused the French-Indian War?
The French-Indian War was started because the French was in Canada and liked doing their trade with only having the Indians helping them but wanted everyone to be Catholic and no immigrants. English was in the U.S. and liked having immigrants to help farming and wanted to do their own religion. England wanted to expand some more of their land which pushed into some of the French land causing a war which spilled over to Europe.
How did Pitt do it? Result?
England decided that Pitt would be a good person to lead the War in Europe (even though the King did not like him). He started making weapons and planning things out. Within 3 years England was ahead and could push on through to the French. Since taxes were high though he decided to let the French settle and give up some land so taxpayers did not have to pay even more taxes.
How did the War impact American-British relations?
The New World English had to choose which land to keep and they chose Canada over more south lands. This would mean they wouldn't have to worry about the French coming down and starting problems so they did not need as much protection from the main land England.
England thought Americans were getting to comfortable with their independence so England wanted to make things tighter. (Made a line saying which land was for Americans and what was for English, Writ of Assistance so that search warrant did not have to go through the judges)
England went way into debt during the war but Americans were not taxed as much. So instead of trying to tax England more they wanted to tax those in the New World.
How did Britain & America differ over American rights? What was "Virtual Representation"? How did American's feel about it?
Britain had representation at all of the meetings where nobody from America was there. "Virtual Representation" was where America was represented because everyone in parliament was representing England which meant the land in America as well, if American interests were represented so were they, anyone being paid by someone in America or companies, had family in America, or had investments in America meant that America was being represented even though nobody from America was there.
America's did not like it because there was nobody actually there representing them and they could not make any decisions at all.
What major changes in British policy began in the 1760s? How did the Sugar Act reflect this?
England was trying to control more of America and get them to only go through Britain for anything (trying to regulate trade). The Sugar Act reduced the amount of taxes on sugar from 6 pence to 3 pence making it a lot cheaper for America to go through Britain for this. They also taxed on other foreign products though that were commonly used.
Describe the Stamp Act crisis.
The Stamp Act was that any printed materials in the colonies be printed on certain paper with an embossed revenue stamp. This tax was to help pay for the military that went to America during the war and since England thought the American colonies benefited the most from it they should be taxed the most. This made the colonies mad saying they are being denied the right to be taxed only with consent. Americans were mad and lashed out making England repeal the tax.
Describe later conflicts, & America's response. Why did Britain overreact to the Tea Party? How did this provoke Lexington?
Later the colonies boycotted the Townshend Act with more preparation. The Boston Massacre which was deaths of 5 civilians by British Soldiers.
Compare/contrast the two sides?
Phase 1 of the Revolution
Phase one - Moderate Phase. The end of the 7 Years War, a costly war, led the British Government to try to raise revenues from the colonies. Colonial protest against the Sugar Act, the Stamp Act, the Townshend Act, amd the Tea Act led to a standoff while tensions rose.
Phase 2 of the Revolution
Radical Phase - The Revolutionary War began when the British tried to enforce their rule with the army and navy, and lasted until they learned they could not impose their will upon the colonies. Meanwhile the war created conditions which led to the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration included statements of Enlightenment principles: equality of opportunity under the law, and the contract theory. of government. These were radical ideas in the context of the times. They challenged the principle of inheritance as the basis for power. They challenged the fundamental class inequalities of the time, in particular, class status and privilege based upon inheritance.
Phase 3 of the Revolution
Counter-Revolutionary Phase - After the war, the revolutionary leadership soon realized that the central government was too weak to protect the interests of people (especially the leadership who were property owners), and they wrote a new Constitution creating a Federal Government with taxing and other powers of a sovereign state.
5 major battles of the American Revolution
Battle of Bunker Hill - The Americans occupied Bunker Hill leading the British no choice but to attack. After a hard fight the Americans were forced to withdraw. The British were shocked as they thought it would be easy and not as many deaths.
Battle of New York - The British recaptured New York from the Americans. They forced the American army led by George Washington to retreat from Long Island and lower Harlem. It was only on the White Plains that the Americans were able to contain the British forces. However, the outcome was the retreat of the Americans to New Jersey, while New York fell into British hands.
Battle of Bennington - British commander Burgoyne sent a force, west of the Connecticut River to seize supplies, while Lieutenant Colonel Fredrich Baum headed towards Bennington. John Stark led the American forces and the British battled against the American forces and makeshift fortifications. The result was a bloody battle that claimed many lives and left either side with a number of casualties
Major Battles cont...
Battle of King Mountain - British Major Ferguson and his 1,200 militia were stopped by forces from Virginia and South Carolina atop King's Mountain. The wooded hill offered the patriots a better chance to get back at the the militia. However, the defenders and militia fell in large numbers.
Battle of Yorktown, 1781: General Cornwalis arrived in Yorktown and prepared a naval base. General Washington joined French forces and surrounded the British army. Another victory for the Americans!