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what is communication?
- sender intentionally produces a signal to convey information to receiver.
- signal must be perceived by a receiver despite attenuation or degradation caused by transmission through the environment.
- signal transmission depends on the sensory modality used
- receiver must discriminate among signal variants
what kind of communication cuckoos use?
they would manipulated reed warblers into feeding them
when are signals honest?
- signal production is condition dependent ( cost of signaling can only be born by individuals in good condition )
- signal production is constrained by physical features
- sender is related to receiver ( mechanism to recognize kin)
what are some factors associated with signaling and singing?
- singing consumes energy
- body size constrains call frequency ( longer make calls with less frequency)
- signaling involves relatives
when should kin recognition evolve?
It should evolve whenever information provided to relatives is under selection
what is the mechanism associated with signaling involving relatives?
- familiarity with spacial location ( treating all offspring in the nest as own)
- template matching ( can be learned or innate, requires cues with sufficient variation to permit estimation of relatedness, innate cues often involve olfaction and MHC)
what is multiple histocomatibility complex?
- it is involve in cell cell recognition used by immune system to recoganize forein antigens
- it contains many loci which exhibit high levels of hetrozygosity with may alleles
- implicated in kin recognition
- territory defense and conflict resolution
- sexual advertisement
- social integration
- parental care
- transfer environmental information ( predator alarm and food location)
what are some benefits of alarm calls?
direct : signal to predator ( deter future attack)
- direct: signal to conspecific ( manipulate fellow prey , improve own escape, protect mate and maintain optimal group size)
- indirect : signal to conspecific ( increase rate of survival)
what are some cost associated with signaling food location?
- increase competition
- signal production takes time and energy
what are some benefits associated with signaling food location?
- increasing number of foragers improves foraging success and decrease predation risk.
- increase reproduction
- food allow long term survival of group, increasing chance of discovering sites
how may types of location signals are there?
- signaling from the source
- going to receiver and communicating discovery of source
- going and providing directional info
what do dance angle and dance duration show in bees?
dance angle indicates direction and dance duration shows distance.
how do honeybees determine distance?
is dance behavior ancestral?
yes , dances with both distance and direction information evolved last.