World Civ China Review sheet

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  1. Sun Yixian
    The first leader of the Nationalist Party in China.
  2. Mao Zedong
    The leader of the Communist Party, who took control of Communist China.
  3. Jiang Jieshi
    After Yixian died, Jieshi took control of the Nationalist Party, Kuomintang.
  4. Red Guards
    Militia units that students formed. They pledged their devotion to Chairman Mao, after he urged China’s young people to “learn revolution by making revolution.”
  5. Zhou Enlai
    Chinese Communist party founder
  6. Deng Xiaoping
    Took control of the Communist party after Mao and Zhou both died. He emerged as the most powerful leader in China. He was a lifelong Communist, but he boldly supported moderate economic policies. Unlike Mao, he was willing to use capitalist ideas to help China’s economy.
  7. Jiang Zemin
    Assumed the presidency after Deng died. He was a highly intelligent and educated man, he was considered skilled, flexible, and practical. However, he had no military experience, and had few allies among the generals. He made a visit to the U.S. During his visit, U.S. protesters demanded more democracy in China. Jiang admitted that China had made some mistakes but refused to promise that China’s policies would change.
  8. Hu Jintao
    Jiang’s successor. However, Jiang was expected to wield influence over Hu behind the scenes. Hu became president of the country and general secretary of the Communist Party. Jiang remained political leader of the military. Both supported China’s move to a market economy.
  9. Long March
    The Communist forces fled when they knew they faced defeat against the Nationalists. They began a hazardous, 6,000-mile-long journey. For a year, the Communists kept only a step ahead of Jiang’s forces. Thousands died from hunger, cold, exposure, and battle wounds. Finally, after a little more than a year, Mao and the survivors settled in caves in northwestern China. There they gained new followers.
  10. Commune
    Large collective farms used during the Great leap Forward. The average commune supported over 25,000 people.
  11. Cultural Revolution
    Its goal was to establish a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal. The new hero was the peasant who worked with his hands. The life of the mind, intellectual and artistic activity, was considered useless and dangerous. The Red Guards shut down colleges and schools and targeted anyone who resisted the regime.
  12. Four Modernizations
    A set of goals embraced by Deng to help China’s economy. These called for progress in agriculture, industry, defense, and science and technology. First, Deng eliminated Mao’s communes and leased the land to individual farmers. The farmers paid rent by delivering a fixed quota of food to the government. They could then grow crops and sell them for a profit. Under this system, food production increased by 50 percent within 6 years. The government permitted private businesses to operate. It gave the managers of state-owned industries more freedom to set production goals. Deng also welcomed foreign technology and investment.
  13. Tiananmen Square
    More than 100,000 students occupied Tiananmen Square, a huge public space in the heart of Beijing. The students mounted a protest for democracy. The student protest won widespread popular support. When thousands of students began a hunger strike to highlight their cause, people poured into Tiananmen Square to support them. Many students called for Deng to resign. Instead of considering political reform, Deng had thousands of heavily armed soldiers storm Tiananmen Square. The assault killed hundreds and wounded thousands. The attack on Tiananmen Square marked the beginning of a massive government campaign to stamp out protest. Police arrested thousands of people.
  14. Hong Kong
    Hong Kong was a thriving business center and British colony on the southeastern coast of China. Great Britain handed Hong Kong over to China, ending 155 years of colonial rule. As part of the transfer, China promised to respect Hong Kong’s economic system and political liberties for 50 years. Many of Hong Kong’s citizens worried about Chinese rule and feared the loss of their freedoms. Others, however, saw the transfer as a way to reconnect with their Chinese heritage. In the first four or five years after the transfer, the control of mainland China over Hong Kong tightened.
  15. Great Leap Forward
    In the strictly controlled life of the communes, peasants worked the land together. They ate in communal dining rooms, slept in communal dormitories, and raised children in communal nurseries. And they owned nothing. The peasants had no incentive to work hard when only the state profited from their labor. This was a giant step backward. The program was ended after crop failures caused a famine that killed about 20 million people.
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World Civ China Review sheet
World Civ China Review sheet
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